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Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations
Click Character to Jump to First Entry Beginning with that Character
1 4 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
1/4 Short for Quarter Attack.  The ideal pursuit and firing pass is for the attacking fighter to approach from the left or right rear quarter of the enemy aircraft, opening fire at 300 yards and ceasing at 200 yards. The ideal opening angle is 20 degrees off the enemy flight path and closing at 15 degrees.   Cine Assessors have techniques using the cine-gun camera film that enables them to measure these parameters.    They are very difficult to achieve, particularly at high altitudes and thus require a great deal of practice.    It is easy to slide line astern with no angle off.   This is dangerous as the attacking fighter will probably fly in to the debris from any hits on the target.

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Fantastic shot, by kind permission of Mac McLelland, that sums up everything about Flag Gunnery at Sylt.

Fighter squadrons of all NATO Nations in 2ATAF had to spend about one month at least once a year, sometimes more often if they were lucky, to practice live firing on the gunnery ranges out over the North Sea, just West of the Island of Sylt.   The targets would be towed at heights, usually varying between 15,000 and 20,000+ feet AMSL, by Meteors flying at a speed of 180 knots.   Firing aircraft would start their attack from a "perch" position on a parallel course to the target, and about 3,000feet above, and 3,000 yards abreast of the Meteor.   A hard level turn into the target would then be made, reversing at the 90° position and diving down into a curve of pursuit towards the target.   In the early days, Vampires and Venoms would aim to fire with their gyro gunsights set at a 'pegged' range of around 250 yards.   With the advent of the Hunter, radar ranging enabled firing accuracy over a wider range bracket.   A metal reflector was attached to the banner's spreader bar to assist the radar locking on to the target, and generally this would occur at a range of about 3,000 feet.   Then it was a case of steady tracking with the pipper on the bullseye and give it a short burst at about 1,000 feet.   Judging range was much a matter of relative size ratio of the pipper to banner width.   The ideal Hunter speed at open fire range was about 360 knots, and 10° flap greatly helped steady things in the tight pursuit curve.

Mac says on his site: "This is how we used the ranges at Sylt.   The white nylon banner, 30 feet long by 6 feet tall, is being towed by a Meteor VIII.   The two seat Vampire T11, (we had no two seater Venoms on 266 Sqn), is being used for instruction.   The Vampire is shooting its cannons at the banner.   In fact he has just reached the Minimum angle-off at which he is allowed to fire and would now cease fire and break up and over the flag.   He would then continue right and back out to the "perch" on the shoreward side.   He would always attack from shore to open sea to avoid spraying the beaches with cannon shells.   Four attackers would each fire 100 rounds (50 from each of two guns) at the one banner.   Each attacker would be shooting rounds dipped in a coloured dye.   So there would be holes in the flag in four different colours and a count would be the straight percentage of hits for each.   If you shot Red cannon shells and there were 23 red holes then your score was 23%.   The flags were dropped on a ground range and brought by truck to the Squadron hangar where the eager pilots would be awaiting the count."

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Gunnery Flag Duxford.   Bob Bingham and John Lakeman counting their hits - July 1958.

In the top picture, showing a Vampire T.11 making an attack, the Meteor, tow cable and banner can be clearly seen.   One would hope that the Vampire in this instance has ceased firing since he is at the minimum permitted angle-off.   Although there is foreshortening in the picture it nevertheless shows why the Meteor tow pilots would complain bitterly if you slid towards a line astern position and continued to fire at the target.   This was not only easy to do but it could also give some false hits when the bullets penetrated in and out of the fluttering banner causing several (long) holes.   Staff PAIs counting the hits were quick to spot this 'crime', and would hasten to check the gun camera film for proof that the 'sinner' had fired below 15° angle-off.   Those most offended, of course, were the tug pilots who would get very voluble if they could hear the bullets whistling past their cockpits!

Another danger of continuing to fire at low angles and close range was that it increased the chance of a bullet cutting the tow cable.   If this happened the 30 foot banner, with its enormous drag, stopped immediately and with a very high closing speed the attacker would be hard pressed to avoid collecting it.   It has been known, on more than one occasion, that an aircraft returned home with the banner and spreader bar firmly embedded in the leading edge of a wing.

Mac tells me: "The Vampire and the flag picture was taken by one of our chaps when we were being flown on demos by the Sylt PAIs.   It is possible that the T11 is being flown by Ken Goodwin as he was one of the PAIs involved.   Not sure what year it was but not our first detachment in 1953 because the tugs then were all Tempests.   BTW...I note from my logbook that the only Demo I had on that detachment was with Ken Goodwin on 26th Sept 1953.   I was lucky enough to have seven Sylt detachments.   I was the squadron PAI after the first detachment and on the one in Nov 1954, 266 Squadron won the Duncan Trophy.   (Thanks to Mac McLelland and Chris Stone)

48 Short for 48 hours or 2 days. Typically a two day pass or stand-down for a weekend covering Saturday and Sunday.
A0A2 Code used in En-route documents to indicate the type of Radio Beacon station. With this type the Voice/Carrier Wave switch should be in the Carrier Wave (CW) position with Beat Frequency Oscillator (BFO) on. For identification use the switch should be in the Voice position with Beat Frequency Oscillator (BFO) off.
A37 Code used in En-route document to indicate the type of air starting trolley that is available at an airfield. A37 has a foreign designation of A3 and provides air at 3,200/3,500 psi.
A&DSB Aylesbury and District Sub Branch.
AA Anti-Aircraft
A&AEE Aeroplane and Armament Experimental Establishment. Boscombe Down and Farnborough.
AAD Apparatus, Air Defence part of the Long Aerial Mine project in WWII.
AAE-44B-2C German Air Force runway arrester gear similar to the UK Rotary Hydraulic Arresting Gear Mk1.
AAE-44B-2D German Air Force runway arrester gear similar to the UK Rotary Hydraulic Arresting Gear Mk1.
AAF Army Air Force.
AAFCE Allied Air Forces Central Europe
AAL Aircraft Approach Limitations.
AAM Air to Air Missile.
AASF Advanced Air Striking Force
A/B Air Brakes.
AB Air Base.
ABC Atomic, Biological and Chemical.
ABn Aerodrome Beacon
A/C Aircraft or Aircraftsman, or Alternating Current, or Army Co-operation.
AC1 Air Craftsman 1.
ACA Air Crew Association.
ACAS Assistant Chief of Air Staff.
ACB Airfield Construction Branch.
ACC Air Co-ordination Centre or accumulator as in trolley-acc, wheeled battery sets for starting aircraft.
ACC(G) Allied Control Commission (Germany).
ACI Air Council Instructions.
ACO Army Co-operation or Airfield Construction Branch.
ACR Aircraft.
ACT Air Control Team and Association of Consumers and Taxpayers (New Zealand political party).
ACTU Air Crew Transit Unit.
ACU Acceleration Control Unit.
A/D Aerodrome or After Duty.
ADC Aide-De-Camp - Officer assisting Air Rank by carrying orders.
ADF Automatic Direction Finding.
ADIZ Air Defence Identification Zone
ADPA Unidentified department in Air Accidents Investigation Branch or CAA.   Anyone know what it stands for?
ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line.  ADSL, also known as Broadband, is a high speed 24/7 internet connection up to 45x faster than a standard dial up connection.  It also allows multiple PC's to connect to the internet at the same time, by making use of a wireless or cable network.  One of the great things about broadband is that it allows both Internet browsing and phone conversation at the same time.
ADTU Air Direction Training Unit - Royal Navy unit.
AEAF World War One Allied Expeditionary Force
AEF Air Experience Flight.
Aerial Mines Aerial Mines was said to be a pet project of Winston Churchill, the Prime Minister.  It entailed lowering 2,000 feet of cable behind the aircraft and flying this in front of enemy bomber formations.  When an interception was made mines were released on parachutes as a curtain across the front of the enemy formation and they blew up on contact with the enemy aircraft.  This was a dangerous operation as premature mine explosions often damaged the aircraft laying the curtain.
AEW Airborne Early Warning.
AF Air Force or Airfield or A Flight or After Flight inspection.
AFC Air Force Cross, 1918.  For Officers and Warrant Officers in the RAF (and Fleet Air Arm from 1941) for acts of courage or devotion to duty when flying, although not in active operations against the enemy.
A.F.C. Armament Firing Camp.
AFCENT Allied Forces Central European Theatre
AFD Air Force Day.
AFDS Air Fighting Development Squadron
AFM Air Force Medal, 1918.  For Warrant and non-commissioned Officers and men for acts of courage or devotion to duty when flying, although not in active operations against the enemy.  (Extended to the Fleet Air Arm 1941)
AFN American Forces Network.
AFR Airframe.
AFS Advanced Flying School
AFTS Advanced Flying Training School
AFV Armoured Fighting Vehicle
AG Air to Ground.
AGL Above Ground Level.
AGM Annual General Meeting
AGRA Army Group Royal Artillery.
AGT Airwork & General Trading (Gatwick, Speke & Ringway)
A/H Artificial Horizon.
AHB Air Historical Branch
AHQ Air HeadQuarters.
AHU Admiralty Holding Unit.
AI Airborne Interception.
AIAA American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
AIB Accident Investigation Branch.
AIRCENT Allied Air Forces Central Europe.
AIS Aeronautical Information Service.
AL Amendment List.
ALG Advanced Landing Ground.
ALO Army or Air Liaison Officer.
AM Air Ministry, Air Marshal or Air Mechanic.
AMO Air Ministry Orders.
AMRL Air Ministry Secret Intelligence Summary.
AMSIS Air Ministry Secret Intelligence Summary.
AMSL Above Mean Sea Level.
AMWD Air Ministry Works Department.
Angels Code word for height
AN/FPS US Radar equipment designation Army-Navy/Fixed permanent land-based-Radar (pulsed)-Search.
ANG Air National Guard - US reserve forces.
ANM Air Nautical Miles.
ANMPG Air Nautical Miles Per Gallon.
ANN Annotations.
ANNING Anning reflector was a reflective metal box structure added to the flag towing bar so that it gave a stronger return on the radar ranging.
A/O Angle Off.
AOA Air Officer Administration.
AOC Air Officer Commanding.   His annual inspection was an important day when the Station must look and perform at its best.   His staff officers inspected all the detail in the weeks leading up to the AOC's inspection and these were known as "Pre-AOCs".
AOCinC Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief.   Usually abbreviated to the C-in-C.
AOG Aircraft On the Ground. An engineering classification indicating that the aircraft is not fit to fly, used to justify urgent spares requirement.
AOP Air Observation Post.
AP Air Publication or Army Pattern or Associated Press.
APC Armament Practice Camp.
APFS Air Publications and Forms Store.
API Aerial Photographic Interpreters.
APO Army Post Office.
APP Approach control at airfields.
APS Armament Practice Station
APU Auxiliary Power Unit.
AR Aircraft Recognition.
Archie WWI slang for Anti-Aircraft Fire.
ARI Air or Aircraft Radio Installation.
ARM Armament.
Arr Arrival (-ing)
AS Anti Submarine.
ASF Aircraft Servicing Flight
ASI Air Speed Indicator or Airborne Surveillance and Intercept radar.
ASIR Air Speed Indicator Reading.
ASM Air to Surface Missile.
ASP Aircraft Servicing Platform
ASR Air Search and Rescue or Air Sea Rescue or Air Surveillance Radar.
AST Air Service Training Limited.
ASW Anti Submarine Warfare.
ATA Absolute pressure (ATA) is the total ambient pressure on the system being calculated or measured.
ATAF Allied Tactical Air Force
ATC Air Traffic Control or Air Training Corps.
ATCC Air Traffic Control Centre.
ATCO Air Traffic Control Officer.
ATL Aviation Traders Limited (Stansted)
ATP Automatic TailPlane.
AUW All Up Weight.
AVGAS AVGAS (aviation gasoline, also known as aviation spirit in the UK) is an aviation fuel used to power piston-engine aircraft.   AVGAS is distinguished from MOGAS (motor gasoline), which is the everyday gasoline used in cars and some non-commercial light aircraft.   Unlike MOGAS, AVGAS contains tetraethyl lead (TEL), a toxic substance used to enhance combustion stability.   AVGAS is used in aircraft that have piston or Wankel engines.   Gas turbines are able to operate on AVGAS, but typically do not.   Turbine and diesel engines are designed to use kerosene-based jet fuel such as AVTUR or AVTAG.
AVM Air Vice Marshal - 2 star rank in Royal Air Force
AVPIN Highly inflammable fuel for the starting motors in the Rolls Royce Avons in the Hunter F.6.
AVTAG F-40 is a military wide cut type aviation turbine fuel with FSII used by land based military gas turbine engined aircraft (NOTE 2). Also known as JP-4 or AVTAG/FSII. Within NATO it is an emergency substitute for F-34/F-35Jet fuel JP-4. Until 1986, F-40 was used by land based gas turbine engined aircraft in all NATO countries except France and the United Kingdom which had converted to F-34 some 15 years earlier. Following a decision by NATO Defence Ministers all nations except Turkey switched from F-40 to F-34. The conversion (known as Stage 1 of the Single Fuel Concept) was completed in 1988. Turkey completed its conversion from F-40 to F-34 in 1996.
AVTUR Aviation Turbine Fuel. F-34 is a military kerosene type aviation turbine fuel with Fuel System Icing Inhibitor (FSII) (NOTE 1) used by land based military gas turbine engined aircraft in all NATO countries. (NOTE 2) Also known as JP-8 or AVTUR/FSII. JET A-1 or AVTUR + Additives (NOTE 3) = JP-8 or AVTUR/FSII. Until 1986, F-40 was used by land based gas turbine engined aircraft in all NATO countries except France and the United Kingdom which had converted to F-34 some 15 years earlier. Following a decision by NATO Defence Ministers all nations except Turkey switched from F-40 to F-34. The conversion (known as Stage 1 of the Single Fuel Concept) was completed in 1988. Turkey completed its conversion from F-40 to F-34 in 1996.
AWM Air Wireless Mechanic.
AWOL Absent WithOut Leave.
AWW All Weather Wing - Central Fighter Establishment.
B Bomber or Bank.
B67 WWII Relief Landing Ground at Ursel halfway between Bruges and Ghent in Belgium.
BA Bachelor of Arts degree
BABS Blind Approach Beacon System. A ground-based navigation system that functions as a beacon by emitting pulsed signals, which can be picked up by an aircraft's L-scan cathode-ray indicator. These signals contain information about the aircraft's position with respect to the runway on which it is making a landing. These systems are helpful when an aircraft is making a blind landing based on instruments.
BAC British Aircraft Corporation.
BAE British AErospace.
BAF Belgium Air Force
BAFF British Air Forces in France was an RAF Command set up on 15Jan40 under the command of Air Marshal Arthur Barratt to provide unified control of all RAF units based in France.   It had two immediately subordinate formations, with differing tasks.   1.the "Air Component" (Royal Air Force Component of the British Expeditionary Force) under Air Vice-Marshal C H B Blount to provide reconnaissance and fighter cover for the British Expeditionary Force.   2.the AASF (Advanced Air Striking Force) under Air Vice-Marshal P H L Playfair.   The AASF consisted of RAF light bomber squadrons based within France (around Rheims) to allow them to bomb Germany should the political decision to do so be taken.   No such decision had been taken before the German offensive in the West began on 10May40, and thereafter the AASF bomber force was used against the advancing German Army and its lines of communications.   As well as the forces under its command, BAFF could also request RAF Bomber Command to provide support from UK-based medium bombers.   The headquarters of BAFF were at Chauny alongside those of the French air commander, to maximise co-operation between the BAFF and the Armie de l'Air.
BAFO British Armed Forces of Occupation
BAFSV British Armed Forces Special Vouchers. Also known as "Baffs". Currency used on camps in Germany.
Balbo Large formation of aircraft
BAOR British Army Of the Rhine
Basket Laundry Basket. e.g. Basket List - list of names and addresses of shareholders.
Battle Flight Battle Flight was a round the clock 7 days a week duty in RAF Germany. During the day the day fighter squadrons had to maintain a number, (latterly 2), of fully armed aircraft ready to be scrambled to intercept any suspicious traffic crossing or near the East German border. They had to be airborne in 2 minutes when they were deployed on the readiness pans at each end of the main runway, and 5 minutes if they were held in squadron dispersal. At night the role was taken over by the night fighter squadrons in Germany
Battle Formation The aim of flying in Battle Formation is to maximise the width of the formation so that the outer wing men can reduce the blind spot behind each aircraft. The outer wing pilots can cover the rear of the formation and their opposite number on the other side of the formation. Inevitably it reduces the manoeuvrability of the formation as a whole and decreases the tactical flexibility of the Leader. At high level, turns are restricted to 90 degrees wherever possible so that in 4 ship formations the second pair has to cross over to the other side and thus fly the same distance as the lead pair during the turn. Low level Battle Formation is much more streamlined and swept back as the Leader will usually have to turn a lot more to follow the terrain. Both of these formation manoeuvres require lots of teamwork and practice.
BCom Bachelor of Commerce.
BE Blériot Experimental.
BEA British European Airways.
BEF British Expeditionary Force.
BEM British Empire Medal.
BF Bristol Fighter or B Flight or Bayerische Flugzeug or Before Flight inspection.
BFBS British Forces Broadcasting Service
BFES British Families Education Service
BFM Belt Feed Mechanism which was part of the 20mm gun system fitted to the Vampire Fb5.
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BFN British Forces Network.
BFO Beat Frequency Oscillator. This is an option on a radio beacon.
BFPO British Forces Post Office.
BFTS British Flying Training School.
BGA British Gliding Association.
BHP Beardmore-Halford-Pullinger (B.H.P. or BHP) were aircraft engines used in production between 1916 and 1918.   The engines were used on many notable First World War aircraft, such as the Airco DH.4, DH.9, DH.10, de Havilland DH.15 and Avro 529 aircraft.   The engines were used as the basis for later designs such as the Siddeley Puma and A.D.C Nimbus (1926) or Brake Horse Power.
Bingo light. Bingo is the NATO codeword for the fuel level at which formation members called "Bingo" to indicate that they had reached a pre-briefed minimum fuel level. On the Hunter there were two lights, one for each fuel system on either side, that indicated 650 lbs of fuel remaining in that side. This may or not be the "Bingo" call for a particular mission but they always acted as a reminder to the pilots that he should be landing soon.
BMH British Military Hospital.
BOAC British Overseas Airways Corporation
BoneDomes Crash helmets for flying
BOQ Bachelor Officers' Quarter.
BOZ British Occupied Zone.
BP British Petroleum.
BPC British Purchasing Commission or Barometric Pressure Control.
bps Bits per second.
BRIXMIS BRItish eXchange MISsion.   British Military Mission in East Germany.   [Click to see full description.]
Broadcast Control When electronic jamming reached levels that made it impossible for detailed direction of fighters on to enemy formations then Broadcast Control was introduced where general information on the location of the enemy formations was broadcast by voice and fighters navigated their own way to the interception.   (Click to see full explanation.)
BS Bull Shit.
BSA British Small Arms, better known for motorcycles.
BSAAC British South American Airways Corporation.
BSc Bachelor of Science degree
BTW By The Way.
BUSTER Codeword used in fighter interceptions and means fly at maximum speed.
C and R Control and Reporting
CAA Civil Aviation Authority.
CAS Chief of the Air Staff.
CasEvac Casualty Evacuation
Category of Damage There are 5 Categories of Damage to RAF aircraft.

Categories 1 and 2 are those classified as being repairable using Squadron Technical resources.
Category 3 repair requires station or Command resources. This level of damage is the lowest level of damage to be classified as a Major Accident and must be reported as such.
Category 4 usually requires the aircraft to be returned to a Maintenance Unit in the UK for repair.
Category 5 is considered a write off and the aircraft is beyond repair by RAF resources.

However, the exact definitions have changed over the years. The following summary is provided by courtesy of the RAF Museum at Hendon:

Damage Categories

Before 1941
Cat. U Undamaged
Cat. M(u) Capable of being repaired on site by the operating unit
Cat. M(c) Beyond the unit's capacity to repair
Cat. R(B) Repair on site is not possible; the aircraft must be dismantled and sent to a repair facility
Cat. W Write-off

1941 - 1952
Cat. U Undamaged
Cat. A Aircraft can be repaired on site
Cat. Ac Repair is beyond the unit capacity, but can be repaired on site by another unit or a contractor)
Cat. B Beyond repair on site, but repairable at a Maintenance Unit or at a contractor's works
Cat. C Allocated to Instructional Airframe duties (for ground training)
Cat E Write-off
Cat. E1 Write-off, but considered suitable for component recovery
Cat. E2 Write-off and suitable only for scrap
Cat. E3 Burnt out
Cat. Em Missing from an operational sortie (Missing aircraft were categorised 'Em' after 28 days)

1952 - 1961
Cat. 1 Undamaged and can remain in service.
Cat. 2 Aircraft can be repaired within second line servicing capability of the parent or nearest unit.
Cat. 3 The repair is beyond the capabilities of the parent or nearest unit, and will be carried out as indicated by the following suffixes:
Cat. 3 (Rep)C The aircraft is repairable on site by a contractor's working party.
Cat. 3 (Rep)S The aircraft is repairable on site by a suitably qualified Service unit.
Cat. 3 (Rep)C Fly The aircraft can be flown to the contractor's works after temporary repair, if necessary, under restricted flight conditions.
Cat. 3 (Rep)C Deferred The aircraft may be flown under limiting conditions specified by the holding unit until a suitable repair date is agreed with the controlling authority. Cat. 3 (Rep)C Deferred aircraft will ultimately be repaired by a contractor, while a Cat. 3 (Rep)S Fly Deferred aircraft will be handled by a suitable Service unit.
Cat. 4 (Rep) Not repairable on site because special facilities and/or equipment is required. Aircraft in this category will be repaired at a contractor's works after temporary repair, as necessary, and under restricted flight conditions.
Cat. 4 (Rogue) The parent unit and/or controlling authority have conducted technical investigations and air tests and are satisfied that the aircraft has unsatisfactory flying characteristics.
Cat. 5(c) Beyond economical repair or surplus, but is recoverable for breakdown to components, spares and scrap.
Cat. 5(s) Beyond economical repair or surplus, and fit only for disposal for scrap.
Cat. 5(gi) Beyond economical repair or surplus, but suitable for ground instructional use.
Cat. 5(m) Missing.

1961 - present
Cat. 1 Repairable on site by first line maintenance personnel.
Cat. 2 Repairable on site by second line maintenance personnel.
Cat. 3 Repairable on site but beyond the technical resources of the unit. Repairs will be done by a Service repair party (Cat.3(SER)), or civilian contractor's working party (Cat. 3(CWP)). A Cat. 3(FLY) aircraft may be flown under limitations until repaired.
Cat.4 The damage sustained requires special equipment not available on site and the aircraft must be moved for repair at an established Service repair depot. (Cat.4(SER)) or to a contractor's works (Cat. 4(WKS)). A Cat. 4(FLY) aircraft may be flown from a site, after temporary repairs have been carried out, to the repair agency for full repairs.
Cat. 5 The aircraft is damaged beyond economic repair.
Cat. 5(GI) Damaged or surplus, but suitable for ground instructional use.
Cat. 5(COMP) Beyond economical repair or surplus, but is salvage of components or spare parts is possible.
Cat. 5(SCRAP) Beyond economical repair or surplus, and suitable for scrap only.
Cat. 5(MISSING) Missing - presumed lost.
CAW College of Air Warfare.
CB Companion of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath.  Order of Chivalry.  Remodelled 1815, and enlarged many times since.  The Order is divided into civil and military divisions.  Women became eligible for the Order from 1 January 1971.  The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is the third-highest order of chivalry in the British honours system.  It is primarily awarded to serving member of the armed forces, and to some civilian servants.  While the term "Knight of the Bath" goes back into medieval times, referring to a ritual of washing followed by a night of prayer, the order was formally established by King George I on 18 May 1725.  Originally, the Order included the Sovereign, the Great Master and 36 Knights Companions.  The Order is presently limited to 120 Knights and Dames Grand Commanders, 355 Knights and Dames Commanders, and 1,925 Companions. The limit does not include foreign honorary members and Royal Knights.   Also "Confined to Barracks" a punishment or cloud base.
CBE Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, 1917.  Order of Chivalry.  The Order was divided into military and civil divisions in December 1918.  The Order is limited to 100 Knights and Dames Grand Cross, 845 Knights and Dames Commanders, and 8,960 Commanders. Also, no more than 858 Officers and 1,464 Members may be appointed per year.
CC Casualty Clearing.
CCA Chief Controller's Assistant.   Fighter Control post also known as Ops. B.
CCF Combined Cadet Force
CCM Unknown abbreviation? Can anyone help? (Click to see an example of use on 16Jan56)
CD Conception Device or Compact Disk.
CDTC Controlled Descent Through Cloud.
C Eng Chartered Engineer
CENTO CENtral Treaty Organization .
CFE Central Fighter Establishment
CFI Chief Flying Instructor
CFS Central Flying School
CG Centre of Gravity
CH Chain Home - Early form of radar protecting UK
CHL Chain Home Low - Early form of radar protecting UK
CIA Central Intelligence Agency of the USA.
CIB Criminal Investigation Branch.
CID Criminal Investigation Department or Division.
CIMgt Chartered Member of the Institute of Management
CinC Commander-in-Chief
Cine Gun Small camera which films the view through the gun sight. This is used for practice against other aircraft where live weapons are not possible. After the films have been developed they are used by the weapons instructors to show the pilot where he could improve. They are also used to confirm claimed kills in combat, both real and practice.   Click here for an illustration of ranging and tracking.
Cine Weave In order to improve tracking skills, usually two aircraft would alternately fly as target and attacking aircraft.  The target aircraft flew a gentle rolling and diving/climbing pattern whilst the attacker took cine film showing his ability to keep the aiming "pipper" on the target cockpit. Cine assessors were able to score the cine gun camera film to provide a mark for the attacking pilot. This exercise was held at various heights. It became more difficult to keep smooth tracking at higher altitudes.   (Click to see a full brief).
CIRCUS bomber attacks with fighter escorts in the day time DURING wwii.   The attacks were against short range targets with the intention of occupying enemy fighters and keeping their fighter units in the area concerned.
CIRE Command Instrument Rating Examiner.    The Command Instrument Rating Examiner is the most experienced IRE in a Command who could test and award IRE qualifications to other pilots.   In the RAF the ratings were usually tested every 6 months.   As well as passing the test applicants had also to have certain minimum practical experience, e.g. hours of instrument flying both simulated and actual in the last 6 months.   The hierarchy of qualifications was as follows:
Command Instrument Rating Examiner (CIRE) - Able to test and award to other IREs and below in a Command;
Instrument Rating Examiner (IRE) - Able to examine and award the lower qualifications.   There might be one or two per squadron;
Master Green - Held by the most experienced and able pilots;
Green - Most experienced pilots in flying practice would be expected to hold a Green rating;
White - The first step on the ladder and a minimum before pilots could fly in Instrument Flight Rules weather conditions.
Each level had its own margins of error within which the pilot must fly whilst performing set manoeuvres "under the hood".   The examination was an Instrument Rating Test (IRT) and was obviously conducted on dual seat versions of the aircraft or in a similar type where there was no dual seat version, e.g. the Vampire or Meteor before the Hunter T7 was introduced.   It was usually carried out with the examinee flying with a hood that stopped him seeing the outside world and forced him to fly only on instruments.   The examiner, of course, had to fly in the clear so that he could maintain a lookout.   The test limits were applicable to each aircraft type and may differ depending on the performance of the aircraft.
A higher level rating was sought after as it allowed your Flight Commander to authorise you for solo flight in worst weather conditions than lower rated pilots.   (See Instrument Flight Rules)
I do not have a record of the test limits or content of a Hunter IRT and would be grateful if anyone could let me have a copy.
CLNT Coolant.
CME Central Medical Establishment.
CMG Companion of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince of Wales (later George IV) whilst he was acting as Prince Regent for his father, George III.   The Order includes three classes, in descending order of seniority:  Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GCMG),  Knight Commander or Dame Commander (KCMG or DCMG) and Companion (CMG).   It is used to honour individuals who have rendered important services in relation to Commonwealth or foreign nations.   People are appointed to the Order rather than awarded it.   Ambassadors are regularly appointed CMGs.   Ian Fleming's spy, James Bond, was fictionally decorated with the CMG in 1953 (mentioned in the novel From Russia with Love).   The Order's motto is Auspicium melioris aevi (Latin for "Token of a better age").   Its patron saints, as the name suggests, are St Michael the Archangel and St George.   One of its primary symbols is that of St Michael trampling over Satan.   The Order is the sixth-most senior in the British honours system, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick, The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, and The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India.   The third of the aforementioned Orders-which relates to Ireland, no longer a part of the United Kingdom-still exists but is in disuse; no appointments have been made to it since 1934.   The last of the Orders on the list, related to India, has also been in disuse since the country's independence in 1947.   It is sometimes humorously said that the abbreviations actually stand for "Call Me God" (CMG), "Kindly (or Kings) Call Me God" (KCMG) and "God Calls Me God" (GCMG).   These became generally known from the television series Yes Minister, but were in use in the Diplomatic Service long before that.
CMU Central Maintenance Unit
C/N Contract Number.
CO Commanding Officer
Cockerell Unknown piece of WWII electronic equipment
C of A Certificae of Airworthiness.
COIN COunter INsurgency.
COM Communications
COMCEN Communications Centre.
CONTACT Codeword used in fighter interceptions and means I'm visual with the target but still require precise control.
Contrail Condensation trail. At certain heights when the conditions of temperature and humidity are right, the exhaust from the engines of an aircraft leave a trail of white condensation which stands out very clearly and easily gives away the aircraft location. In certain conditions the trails dissipate a short distance behind the aircraft and these are known as non-persistent contrails. Pilots are told during their met. briefing what are the likely height bands for trails for that day.
CoS Chief of Staff.
CPFO Command Physical Fitness Officer.
CplT Corporal Technician.
CpX Command Post Exercise.
CRA Commander Royal Artillery was a military appointment in Commonwealth infantry and armoured divisions in the 20th Century.   The CRA was the senior artillery officer in the division and commanded the regiments of field, anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery, and provided specialist artillery and offensive support advice to the divisional commander.   Even though the Canadians, New Zealanders, etc. had their own artillery corps (i.e. the Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery), the term CRA was still used to mark this appointment in formations of those armies (rather than CRCA or CRNZA etc.) for consistency between the allies.   The CRA was ranked as a Brigadier General in the First World War, and as a Brigadier in the Second World War.
CR/DF Cathode Ray/Direction Finding.
CRAIG COMPUTER A Craig Computer was used for Fighter Control but was little more than a draughtsman's board on the substrate of which was drawn a map of the relevant geographical area.   The associated draughting instrument was graduated in degrees and nautical miles.
CRC Control and Reporting Centre.
creep Under the great stresses on a tyre when it is spun up from zero to landing speed on touchdown, there is a danger that the tyre carcass will be dragged round the rim of the wheel.   If not checked eventually the nozzle for inflating the tyre which is fixed to the wheel, will tear out of the tyre and cause an explosive decompression.   Therefore on all aircraft tyres there is a paint mark on the tyre and on the wheel and these must stay aligned. If tyre creep is present then these marks will become out of alignment. The pilot checks for this on each wheel during his Outside Checks.
CRO Command Routine Order.
CRUISE Codeword used in fighter interceptions and means fly at .9 Mach (standard interception speed for the Hunter).
CS Cycles per Second or callsign or Communications Squadron or Constant Speed.
CSA CeSké Aerolinie.   Czech Airline.
CSDE Central Servicing Development Establishment.
CSP Constant Speed Propeller.
CSU Command Support Unit.
CU Cumulus cloud.
CVO Commander of the Royal Victorian Order, 1896.  Order of Chivalry.  The Royal Victorian Order is a part of the British honours system which was established in 1896, and is usually awarded to personal servants of the Queen. Also, unlike most other British orders, it is within the personal gift of the Sovereign, rather than being awarded by the Sovereign upon the advice of the Prime Minister.
DATCO Duty Air Traffic Control Officer.
DArmD Deputy Armament Director
DAX Dax trainers were peculiar to the Fighter Controllers' training school at Middle Wallop.
DB Douglas Bomber/Boston aircraft or Daimler-Benz.
DC Direct Current.
DCL Doctor of Civil Law.   Doctor of Civil Law is a degree offered by some universities, such as the University of Oxford, instead of the more common Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) degrees.
DCM Distinguished Conduct Medal was (until 1993) the second level military decoration awarded other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to non-commissioned personnel of other Commonwealth countries.   The medal was instituted in 1854, during the Crimean War, to recognise gallantry within the other ranks. The medal was the other ranks' equivalent of the Distinguished Service Order when awarded for bravery to commissioned officers, although it ranked well below that order in precedence.   Although considered to be the army's second ranking gallantry award, the DCM was almost always seen as a "near miss for the VC".   From 1942, members of the Navy and Air Force were entitled to the award.   In the aftermath of the 1993 review of the honours system, as part of the drive to remove distinctions of rank in awards for bravery, the DCM was discontinued (along with the award of the DSO for gallantry and the Conspicuous Gallantry Medal).   These three decorations were replaced by the Conspicuous Gallantry Cross, which now serves as the second level award for gallantry for all ranks across the whole armed forces.   Bars were awarded to the DCM in recognition of the performance of further acts of gallantry meriting the award.   Recipients are entitled to the post-nominal letters DCM.
.
DCO Duty Carried Out.
DCOS Deputy Chief of Staff.
Dep Departure (-ing)
DF Day Fighter
D/F Direction Finding
DFC Distinguished Flying Cross, 1918.  For Officers and Warrant Officers in the RAF (and Fleet Air Arm from 1941) for acts of gallantry when flying in active operations against the enemy.
DFCS Day Fighter Combat School
DFGA Day Fighter Ground Attack.
DFLS Day Fighter Leaders' School
DFM Distinguished Flying Medal, 1918.  For Warrant and non-commissioned Officers and men in the RAF (and Fleet Air Arm from 1941) for acts of gallantry when flying in active operations against the enemy.
DFS Directorate of Flight Safety.
DFT Director of Flying Training.
DH Decision Height (USAF/NATO) and de Havilland.
DI Directional Indicator or Drill Instructor.
DKW Dampf-Kraft-Wagen, English: steam-driven car) is a German car and motorcycle marque.   The company and brand is one of the ancestor companies of the modern day Audi company as one of the four companies that formed Auto-Union.
DL Deputy Lieutenant
DME Distance Measuring Equipment.   TACAN and DME are UHF navigation aids that operate in the 1,000 MHz band.   DME ground beacons provide range information only, whilst TACAN beacons supply magnetic bearing in addition to range.   The range function of both TACAN and DME beacons is identical in operation and is based on the transponder principle, but the bearing information of a TACAN beacon is in the form of a continuous transmission.
DP Displaced Persons.
DR Dead Reckoning or Deduced Reckoning or Despatch Rider.
DS Directing Staff
DSC Distinguished Service Cross, 1914.   The decoration to consist of a silver cross, with the reverse side plain, but having on the obverse side in the centre the Imperial and Royal cipher surmounted by the Imperial Crown.   The decoration is to be awarded in recognition of meritorious or distinguished services before the enemy on the part of the following officers:- 1. Commissioned Officers of His Majesty's Naval or Royal Indian Marine forces below the rank of captain, in cases where the services rendered may not be considered sufficient by the Admiralty to warrant the appointment of such officers to the Distinguished Service Order.   2. Warrant officers, acting warrant officers or subordinate officers of His Majesty's Naval or Royal Indian Marine forces provided the services rendered shall have been marked with especial mention in despatches by the admiral or senior naval or military officer commanding the squadron or detached force.   3. Officers and warrant officers of the Royal Air Force serving at sea.   4. Officers of His Majesty's transports and fleet auxiliaries and of the merchant navy and fishing fleets who render services in circumstances considered by the Admiralty to merit the award.   5. Foreign officers of equivalent ranks to those indicated at 1 and 2 above who have been associated in naval or military operations with His Majesty's Naval or Royal Indian Marine forces may be eligible for the honorary award of the decoration.   The award of the decoration to carry with it the right to have the letters D.S.C. appended to the officer's name.
DSO Distinguished Service Order, 1886.  The Distinguished Service Order is a British military decoration awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat.  It was instituted 6 September 1886 by Queen Victoria, the Royal Warrant being published on 9 November.  It usually goes to Majors and above, but is sometimes awarded to especially valorous junior officers.  8,981 DSOs were awarded during World War I, each award being announced in the London Gazette.  The order was established for rewarding individual instances of meritorious or distinguished service in war. This is a military order for officers only, and while normally given for service under fire or under conditions equivalent to service in actual combat with the enemy, it was awarded between 1914 and 1916 under circumstances which could not be regarded as under fire.   After 01 January 1917, commanders in the field were instructed to recommend this award only for those serving under fire.  Prior to 1943, the order could be given only to someone Mentioned-in-Dispatches.    The order is generally given to officers in command, above the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel and awards to ranks below this are usually for a high degree of gallantry just short of deserving the Victoria Cross.
DT Daily Telegraph or Drop Tank.
Duncan Trophy

93sqnpic088.jpg, 6786 bytes

1px-trans.gif, 43 bytesDuncan Trophy.   It was presented to the RAF by General Gervasio Duncan de Lima Rodrigues, Chief of Staff of the Brazilian Air Force following his visit to the UK in 1947.   He was so impressed by his reception that he decided a trophy might be in order.   The trophy was accepted by Lord Tedder but it then seems that the RAF were not quite sure what to do with it.   It was first awarded to the unit who made the greatest contribution to flying safely in all weather conditions and was restricted to day fighter squadrons and RAF Germany, with the first competition being held in 1949.   However, because of the difficulty in assessing the competition, the rules were subsequently changed until, in 1952, they decided to allocate it solely to RAF Germany to award to the squadron achieving the highest standard in air-to-air firing and all-round weapons efficiency in the 2ATAF.   (Click to see a full brief on the Cine Weave phase of the competition scoring.)   The competition ended in 1961 when the APC at Sylt was closed with 5 Squadron being the final winners.   93 Squadron were the last winners before the Hunter squadrons were disbanded at the end of 1960.   The last records from the Air Historical Branch state that: "DFT suggested in 1968 that once the Phantom was introduced the competition would be revived.   However, in 1970 further consideration by DFT was deferred until completion of a study on all trophies."   At the time of the study the trophy was held at RAF Rheindahlen HQ 2ATAF, but the web master found in November 2007 that it was last held at Quedgly Logistics Depot.   The records show that it was collected from there by helicopter on 18May1990 and transported, on loan, to RAF Northolt along with two other items.   Enquiries at RAF Northolt in November 2007 failed to find any trace of all three items.   Subsequent enquiries through HQ Air Command has revealed that the RAF have lost or had stolen most of its silver trophies and very little remains.   Thanks to the intervention of Air Chief Marshal Sir Patrick Hine, an ex--Flight Commander on 93 Squadron, the current Chief of the Air Staff Air Chief Marshal Sir Glenn Torpy has instituted an internal enquiry and a re-instatement of the GAOs regarding custody of all RAF silver trophies.   The web master is driving for the custody of the silver to be moved permanently to the RAF Museum to join the RAF paintings and other memorabilia for which they have always had custody.   (As at 6Dec08).
DTF Department or Directorate of Training Flying.
DV Direct Vision.
E Electronic or code used in En-route documents to indicate that Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) frequency of 243.0 and Very-High Frequency (VHF) 121.5, (which are the international emergency frequencies), may or may not be monitored by the station but is available through the appropriate Air Traffic Control Centre.
E2A stationpic822.jpg, 17532 bytes 1px-trans.gif, 43 bytesThe magnetic compasses of the E2 series are miniature instruments, developed for use as emergency or standby compasses where lack of space precludes the installation of the larger standby compass of the P type.   They are of the vertical card-type, the compass card being graduated every 10 degrees with figures every 30 degrees.   The cardinal points are marked by the appropriate letter.   The compasses are designed to give a bench accuracy of ±½° and an operational accuracy of ±10°.   However, with good flight conditions and a stable heading indication, interpolation may be made to an extent comparable with bench accuracy.

Compass, Type E2A

1px-trans.gif, 43 bytesThe bowl of the compass is of a plastic material with the lubber line marked on the front inside of the bowl.   The stem supporting the compass system is mounted on a bracket which is screwed into the base of the bowl.   The compass bowl is completely filled with a silicone fluid, chosen because it has no detrimental effect on the material of the bowl and because its temperature/viscosity changes are small.   A bellows at the rear of the bowl allows for change of the volume of the liquid due to variation in temperature.
1px-trans.gif, 43 bytesThe magnet system comprises a steel ring magnet to which is riveted a dome.   The iridium- tipped pivot screws into the centre of the dome and rests in a sapphire cup secured to the vertical stem by the cupholder.   The magnet system is therefore pendulously suspended.   The compass card is attached to the magnet system by brackets riveted to the card and to the magnet.   When the compass is inverted, the magnet system cannot become detached from the vertical stem since the clearance between the dome and the top of the bowl is insufficient to allow the pivot to leave the cup.
1px-trans.gif, 43 bytesTwo pairs of adjustable correctors are fitted to a metal plate which is secured to the top of the bowl.   When the corrector magnets are in the neutral position, index lines engraved on small circular rotatable plates above the magnets are aligned with fixed lines engraved on the main plate.   The main plate is also engraved with the letters B and C against the rotatable plates, denoting the coefficients for which the correction is being made.   The operating heads for the correctors are situated at the top front of the bowl, one on either side of the filler plug.   The letters B and C are engraved on the rim of the top plate above their respective corrector operating heads.   The operating heads are turned by a small E2 compass corrector key.
1px-trans.gif, 43 bytesTwo radial slots in the compass mounting plate permit adjustment in azimuth to correct for coefficient A.   A scale engraved on the rim of the top plate between the letters B and C enables the amount of movement to be assessed.   The E2A compass is shown in Fig 1.

Compass, Type E2B

1px-trans.gif, 43 bytesThe E2B compass is a variant of the E2A compass, the difference being that the E2B compass incorporates direct red lighting of the compass bowl.   This lighting is achieved by means of a miniature 28 v DC non-magnetic lamp and a red filter.   The intensity of illumination of the lamp can be varied by means of a standard pattern dimmer switch.   The E2B compass is used in aircraft where the cockpit lighting is red.   The E2B compass is shown in Fig 2.

Compass, Type E2C

1px-trans.gif, 43 bytesThe E2C compass is almost identical to the E2B compass but has a clear instead of a red filter around the internal lamp.   It thus has direct white lighting of the compass bowl instead of red.   The E2C compass is used in aircraft where the cockpit lighting is white.   (Courtesy AP 3456D Aircraft Instruments and Instruments Systems to AL27 Jul83.)
E5 Code used in En-route document to indicate the type of electrical servicing and starter trolleys that are available at an airfield. E5 provides DC 28v/35kW.
E/A Enemy aircraft
EC Escadre de Chasse - French Air Force Fighter Squadron.
ECM Electronic Counter Measures.
ECR Electronic Combat/Reconnaissance.
EDA Emergency Deployment Area.
EF Euro-Fighter.
EFD Experimental Flying Department, Royal Aeronautical Establishment, Farnborough.
EFTS Elementary Flying Training School.
EFW Eidgenvssische Flugzeugwerke Emmen, the Swiss Federal Aircraft Factory.
EIS Electronics & Integrated Solutions.
EMU ElectroMechanical Unit
ENG Engine.
EPAS Equipment, Pay and Accounting Section
ERP Engine Running Pan.
ESWL Equivalent Single Wheel Loading in thousands of pounds.
ETA Estimated Time of Arrival.
ETD Estimated Time of Departure.
ETNJ International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) indicator used for GAF Jever.
ETPS Empire Test Pilots School.
EU European Union.
EUREKA Code word for distance finding radar which can also be used with airborne Rebecca equipment for blind bombing.
EWS Emergency Water Supply.
F Fighter.
F18 Code used in En-route document to show the fuel available at an airfield. F18 is for 100/130AVGAS and in many instances 100LL or 100L. This new fuel has the same specification but with a lower lead content; it is normally coloured blue.
F40 Code used in En-route document to show the fuel available at an airfield. F40 is for AVTAG/FS II or JP-4. This fuel usually also contains Corrosion inhibitor such as HITEC-515. The FS II (AL-31) and the corrosion inhibitor may be combined and added in the form of AL-38.
F60a RAF Notice given to airmen offering to join the Royal Air Force.
F64 Airman's Service Book.
F95 f95-camera.jpg, 12727 bytes
(Thanks to JSP Museum.)
Vinten F.95 strip aperture, 70 mm, 4 or 12 inch lens airborne camera as carried in the Swift FR.5.   The Vinten firm had been involved with aerial reconnaissance equipment since before the Second World War, during which they produced and continually updated the E24 reconnaissance camera as standard equipment for the RAF.   Initially, the Meteor FR.9 was equipped with the F.24 but it was not suitable for the greatly increased low-level speeds to come and, to meet these new demands work began on the F.95 framing camera in 1950.   Interchangeable film magazines, loaded in darkness but easily detachable from their lens units in daylight in less than 10 seconds, each contained sufficient film for 500 exposures.   Four or 12-inch lenses and the 70-mm wide film allowed considerable magnification before grain size presented a problem.   To avoid blurring at very high speeds, exposure times of up to 1/2000 second were achieved with a strip aperture in a focal plane endless shutter blind of Neoprene silk; this admitted light as it passed over the film gate at a cycle rate of 4 or 8 frames/ second.   Adjacent negatives viewed through a stereoscope gave three-dimensional imagery for greater target appreciation.   With all these attributes, at a size of 11 in. x 6in. x 9in. and weighing only 16 lb (with 4-inch lens and magazine), the F.95 was ideal for the next generation of FR aircraft.   (Thanks to Nigel Walpole's excellent book "Swift Justice".)
F252 Form used to record a charge against an offending airman.
F295 Leave pass.
F321 BAOR Sleeper/Seat/Cabin Application Form.   (Click to see an example.)
F412 Form 412 contain the proceedings of a Board of Inquiry.   They are assembled as follows:
a. Diary of Action showing the day-to-day progress of the board.
b. The completed first 8 pages of F412.
c. The green sheets of F412 starting at Page 9 and containing:
   (1) Narrative of events and circumstances.
   (2) The board's findings as required by the terms of reference.
   (3) Recommendations.
   (4) Observations.
d. Statements of witness warned under QR(RAF) 1269(6) or the equivalent Army regulations, viz BI(A)R 1956, r. 11 and QR(Army) App XI, para 55.
e. Page for remarks by the station commander.
f. Page for remarks by AOC.
g. Page for remarks by AOC-in-C.
h. Record of evidence starting at Page 15. Ensure that the correct procedure has been followed when the character or reputation of a person has been affected.
j. Annexes (lettered). These should include:
   (1) Accident Investigation Branch report.
   (2) Additional statements, documents (eg aircraft trim sheets), results of trials, tests etc.
   (3) Exhibits produced during the proceedings.
   (4) Map showing the position of the crash and location of eye-witnesses, and plan of wreckage.
   (5) Relevant photographs.
   (6) Copies of relevant extracts from the service documents of the pilot (Form 5000 series).
   (7) Form 2888, if Service personnel and equipment attended the fire.
   (8) Form 2855 and Form 2855A if applicable.
F414A Form 414A Summary of Flying and Assessments which is completed each year or at the end of a flying course and a copy is pasted in your logbook.
F4216 RAF Form 4216 Official Secrets Act Declaration.
F458 Form 458 Storeman's Issue Book.
F540 Form 540 Squadron Operations Record book. See under each Unit Chronology.
F541 Form 541 Squadron Operations Record book. Part of F540 which details work carried out that month. See under each Unit Chronology.
F557 RAF Permanent Pass.
F656 Vehicle Servicing Instructions.
F658 Authorisation to use RAF Transport.
F664B F664B is used to recover costs from individuals for lost or damaged items.
Form 700

Form 700 contains the servicing and flying records for each aircraft.    The pilot signs for the aircraft in the F700 before walking out to check it and take off. He signs the F700 when the flight is complete, entering the flying times and any p[problems he encountered.   The ground crews enter the servicing that they have completed on the aircraft and sign the F700.
F856 RAF certificate of Service Book.   (Click to see front page.)
F1022 RAF Technical Defect Report Form.
F1250 RAF Personal Identification Card.
F1369 Officers' Confidential Annual Report Form.
F1629 RAF Driving Licence.
F1839 RAF Identification Card for Officers Driving Mechanical Transport.
F2715 RAF Form 2715 Combined Duty/Leave Pass and Railway Ticket.
F3884 RAF Form 3884 RAF Certificate of Inoculation.
F4225 RAF Form 4255 Pilot Navigation Log Card.   (Click to see an example of its use.)
FS9561 RAF Form S.9561 RAF Driving Licence in BAOR.
Form D Form D is used to task aircraft for ground attack army support missions.
FAA Fleet Air Arm.
FAC Forward Air Control.
FAE Unknown specialisation in RAF ranks
FAF French Air Force.
FAMA Flota Aérea Mercante Argentina.   Fleet air Mercante Argentina (FAMA) was the first line air national of the Argentina concession to exploit, with exclusivity, international air routes.
FANY First Aid Nursing Yeomanry.   Mission: The Corps was formed in 1907 with the purpose of assisting the Military and Civil authorities in times of Emergency. Society, and the place of women within it, has changed phenomenally in one hundred years but the Corps' mission and purpose remain substantially unchanged.   The FANY is still a voluntary organisation, based on principles of duty and integrity, self discipline and collaboration; always on call, FANYs are resourceful and unique women, who come from all walks of life, and are united in their aim to be of service in whatever capacity is asked of them.
FAW Fighter All Weather.
FB Fighter Bomber
FBIM Fellow British Institute of Management.
FBW Fighter Bomber Wing.
FCU Fuel Control Unit.
FCAWS Fighter Command Air Weapons School(?).
FCS Fighter Combat School.
FDP Forward or Fighter Direction Post.
FEAF Far East Air Force.
ff ff code used in En-route documents indicating that the facility is open as for the aerodrome times. Also First Flight.
FFAR Folding Fin Aerial Rocket.
FFI Free From Infection.
FGA Fighter Ground Attack
FHT Final Handling Test.
FIBM Fellow of the Institute of Business Management. (Not found on the web or an official Chartered Institute of Management qualification).
FIR Flight Information Region.
FITT Fitter.
Fixed cross This was the alternate to the use of the gyro stabilised gunsight for air to ground firing. The aiming pipper is sloppy using the gyro but if it could be held steady on the target then allowances were automatically made for wind. The alternative was using the fixed cross in the gunsight, which was easier to fly and hold on to the target, and then judging for yourself what offset to allow for wind. Both methods could produce good scores and which was used was very much a personal preference of the pilot.
FL Flight Levels is the height indicated when the altimeter sub-scale is set to 1013.2 millibars.
FM Frequency Modulated.
FMT Form Mechanical Transport.
FMT3 Form Mechanical Transport 3 tri-service form used to report motor accidents.
FOCU Fighter Operational Conversion Unit.
FPI Fuel Pump Isolating.
FPS Feet Per Second.
FPS6 Fixed permanent land-based-Radar (pulsed)-Search. Twelve General Electric AN/FPS-6 height finding radars were purchased from the United States government at the beginning of 1952 to augment the aging British Type 13 radars. Height finder radar aerial radiation patterns feature narrow vertical and broad horizontal beam widths. The aerial nods up and down at 20 or 30 cycles per minute and can rapidly slew in azimuth (Azication) to face the bearing of the target that you want to find the height of.
FR Fighter Reconnaissance.
FRADU Fleet Requirements and Air Direction Unit - Royal Navy unit result of merging two functions.
FRAeS Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society.
FRC Flight Reference Card.
FRS Fellow of the Royal Society.   The Society's core members are the Fellows: scientists and engineers from the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth selected based on having made "a substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science".   Fellows are elected for life, and gain the right to use the postnominal Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) title.   The rights and responsibilities of Fellows also include a duty to financially contribute to the Society, the right to stand for Council posts, and the right to elect new Fellows.   Forty-four Fellows are elected each year, and there are currently 1,314 in total.   Election to the Fellowship is decided by ten Sectional Committees (each covering a subject area or set of subjects areas) which consist of existing Fellows.
FRSE Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
FRU Fleet Requirements Unit - Royal Navy unit.
FS Flight Sergeant or Folio Sheet.
FT Full Throttle.
FTC Flying Training Command.
FTS Flying Training School.
FW Focke Wulf or Flying Wing.
FWDO Flying Wing Duty Officer.
FWHQ Flying Wing Head Quarters.
FWS Fighter Weapons School.
G Gravity. 1G is equal to the normal forces on the body. 2G imposes twice the load on the body. Without special equipment and strengthened aircraft the normal flying limit used to be 6G.
G4F stationpic823.jpg, 19978 bytesComponents 1px-trans.gif, 43 bytesThe G4F operates on principles similar to the G4B, but, being intended primarily for single seater aircraft, it is a simpler instrument.   It comprises four basic units:

a. Detector Unit.
b. Gyro Unit.
c. Amplifier Unit.
d. Corrector Control Box.

Gyro Unit

1px-trans.gif, 43 bytesThe gyro unit is similar to, but not interchangeable with the gyro unit of the G4B.   The main difference is that the control transmitter of the G4B gyro unit becomes the control transformer of the G4F gyro unit.   The control panel of the G4B is replaced in the G4F by a DG compass selector switch in the form of a simple left/right switch located at the top left-hand corner of the gyro unit face, as shown in Fig 11.

Annunciator.

1px-trans.gif, 43 bytesThe annunciator is the same as that in the G4B.

Synchronization.

1px-trans.gif, 43 bytesTo synchronize the compass, push in the synchronization knob and turn in the direction shown by the indication of the annunciator until an indication midway or alternating dot/cross is obtained.   It will not normally be necessary to re-synchronize the compass in flight unless the gyro exceeds its limits, ±85° in pitch and roll, or the compass has been used in the Direct Gyro mode.   Pressing the synchronization knob automatically erects the gyro but should only be carried out in straight and level, un-accelerated flight.   (Courtesy AP 3456D Aircraft Instruments and Instruments Systems to AL27 Jul83.)
GA Ground Attack
GAF German Air Force
GAO Royal Air Force General Administration Orders.
GBE Knight (or Dame) Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, 1917.  The Order was divided into military and civil divisions in December 1918.  The Order is limited to 100 Knights and Dames Grand Cross, 845 Knights and Dames Commanders, and 8,960 Commanders. Also, no more than 858 Officers and 1,464 Members may be appointed per year.
GC George Cross.   In 1940, King George VI felt the need to formally recognise individual acts of outstanding bravery by the civilian population during the Blitz - Nazi Germany's bombing campaign against British cities.   He decided to create an award for the men and women of the Commonwealth whose courage could not be marked by any other honour.   There existed many decorations and medals instituted by the King's predecessors for the reward of gallantry and/or meritorious conduct, but these, by their terms of reference, were largely restricted to members of the armed forces.   It was to meet this evident need that the King instigated the George Cross and George Medal, the result of long deliberation and much careful study, both as to eligibility and design.   The decoration consists of a plain silver cross, with the Royal cipher "GVI" in the angle of each limb.   In the centre is a circular medallion showing St. George and the Dragon, and surrounded by the inscription, "For Gallantry".   The reverse is plain and bears the name of the recipient and the date of the award.   The George Cross, which is worn before all other decorations except the Victoria Cross, is suspended from a dark blue ribbon threaded through a bar adorned with laurel leaves.   Ladies not in uniform wear the George Cross, suspended from a wide bow of dark blue ribbon, below the left shoulder.   Recipients are permitted to use the post-nominal letters "GC" after their name. Although it's award is recommended by the Prime Minister, the decoration is bestowed by the Sovereign.   Also Gliding Centre.
GCA Ground Controlled Approach. This usually follows a QGH/controlled Descent Through Cloud (CDTC) which ideally positions the aircraft5 to 5 to 10 miles in line with the landing runway at about 1,500 feet above the ground. From there the pilot usually changes radio channels and is taken over by a ground radar controller on the airfield. He uses the local airfield radar to talk the pilot down on to the runway. Descent is begun at about 5 nautical miles at about 300 feet per minute.
GCB Knight (or Dame) Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, 1725.  Order of Chivalry.  Remodelled 1815, and enlarged many times since.  The Order is divided into civil and military divisions.  Women became eligible for the Order from 1 January 1971.  The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is the third-highest order of chivalry in the British honours system.  It is primarily awarded to serving member of the armed forces, and to some civilian servants.  While the term "Knight of the Bath" goes back into medieval times, referring to a ritual of washing followed by a night of prayer, the order was formally established by King George I on 18 May 1725.  Originally, the Order included the Sovereign, the Great Master and 36 Knights Companions.  The Order is presently limited to 120 Knights and Dames Grand Commanders, 355 Knights and Dames Commanders, and 1,925 Companions. The limit does not include foreign honorary members and Royal Knights.
GCHQ Government Communications headQuarters.   The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) is a British intelligence agency responsible for providing signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance to the British government and armed forces. Based in Cheltenham, it operates under the guidance of the Joint Intelligence Committee.
GCI Ground Controlled Interception
GCIE Grrand Commander of the Indian Empire.   The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire is an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria in 1878.   The Order includes members of three classes:   1. Knight Grand Commander (GCIE);   2. Knight Commander (KCIE);   3. Companion (CIE).   No appointments have been made since 1947, the year of the Partition of India.   With the death of the last surviving knight, the Maharaja of Dhrangadhra, the order became dormant in 2010.   The motto of the Order is Imperatricis auspiciis, (Latin for "Under the auspices of the Empress"), a reference to Queen Victoria, the first Empress of India.   The Order is the junior British order of chivalry associated with the Empire of India; the senior one is The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India.
GCMG Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince of Wales (later George IV) whilst he was acting as Prince Regent for his father, George III.   The Order includes three classes, in descending order of seniority:  Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GCMG),  Knight Commander or Dame Commander (KCMG or DCMG) and Companion (CMG).   It is used to honour individuals who have rendered important services in relation to Commonwealth or foreign nations.   People are appointed to the Order rather than awarded it.   Ambassadors are regularly appointed CMGs.   Ian Fleming's spy, James Bond, was fictionally decorated with the CMG in 1953 (mentioned in the novel From Russia with Love).   The Order's motto is Auspicium melioris aevi (Latin for "Token of a better age").   Its patron saints, as the name suggests, are St Michael the Archangel and St George.   One of its primary symbols is that of St Michael trampling over Satan.   The Order is the sixth-most senior in the British honours system, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick, The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, and The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India.   The third of the aforementioned Orders-which relates to Ireland, no longer a part of the United Kingdom-still exists but is in disuse; no appointments have been made to it since 1934.   The last of the Orders on the list, related to India, has also been in disuse since the country's independence in 1947.   It is sometimes humorously said that the abbreviations actually stand for "Call Me God" (CMG), "Kindly (or Kings) Call Me God" (KCMG) and "God Calls Me God" (GCMG).   These became generally known from the television series Yes Minister, but were in use in the Diplomatic Service long before that.
GCSI Granf Commander of the Star of India.   The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India was an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria in 1861.   The Order included members of three classes:   1. Knight Grand Commander (GCSI);   2. Knight Commander (KCSI);   3. Companion (CSI).   No appointments have been made since the 1948 New Year Honours, shortly after the Partition of India in 1947.   With the death of the last surviving knight, the Maharaja of Alwar, the order became extinct in 2009.   The motto of the order is Heaven's light our guide.   The "Star of India", the emblem of the order, also appeared on the flag of the Viceroy of India.   The order is the senior order of chivalry associated with the Empire of India; the junior order is The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, and there was also, for women only the Imperial Order of the Crown of India.   It is the fifth-most-senior British order of chivalry, following The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick, and The Most Honourable Order of the Bath.
GCT Ground Combat Training
GCVO Grand Cross of the Victorian Order.   The Royal Victorian Order (French: Ordre royal de Victoria) is a dynastic order of knighthood recognising distinguished personal service to the order's Sovereign, the reigning monarch of the Commonwealth realms, any members of their family, or any of their viceroys.   Established in 1896, the order's chapel is the Savoy Chapel, its official day is 20 June, and its motto is Victoria, alluding to the society's founder, Queen Victoria.   There are no limits on the number of inductees, and admission remains the personal gift of the monarch, with each of the organisation's five hierarchical grades and one medal with three levels representing different levels of service.   While all members receive the ability to use the prescribed styles of the orderthe top two levels grant titles of knighthood, and all accord distinct post-nominal lettersthe Royal Victorian Order's precedence amongst other honours differs from realm to realm, and admission to some grades may be barred by government policy.   Though similarly named, the Royal Victorian Order is not related to the Royal Victorian Chain.
GD General Duties, main flying branch of the RAF.
GD/P General Duties/Pilot.
GDR German Democratic Republic.   East Germany before re-unification.
GEC General Electric Company
GEE World War Two Navigation and Bombing Aid
GEEH World War Two Blind Bombing Aid
GEOREF Geographical Reference.   This was a simpler system than, but based on, latitude and longitude.   It used a system of lettered squares subdivided into smaller numerically labelled areas, e.g. NH1247.   This gave a precise enough location of a moving aircraft for all practical purposes and was very convenient and quick to transmit over the radio or telephone line.
GGS Gyroscopic Gun Sight
GHQ General Head Quarters.
GIA Ground Instruction Airframe (or aircraft).
GLO Ground Liaison Officer
GmbH Gesellschaft mit beschrdnkter Haftung, German for "company with limited liability", is a type of legal entity very common in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and other German-speaking Central European countries.   The name of the GmbH form emphasizes the fact that the owners (Gesellschafter, also known as members) of the entity are not personally liable for the company's debts.
GOC General Officer Commanding.
Gn Green.
GP General Purpose.
GPO General Post Office.
GR Ground Radar or General Reconnaissance.
GRSF Ground Radio Servicing Flight.
GREEN CARD The Green Card is the most common instrument flying experience rating.   In the RAF the ratings were usually tested every 6 months.   As well as passing the test applicants had also to have certain minimum practical experience, e.g. hours of instrument flying both simulated and actual in the last 6 months.   The hierarchy of qualifications was as follows:
Command Instrument Rating Examiner (CIRE) - Able to test and award to other IREs and below in a Command;
Instrument Rating Examiner (IRE) - Able to examine and award the lower qualifications.   There might be one or two per squadron;
Master Green - Held by the most experienced and able pilots;
Green - Most experienced pilots in flying practice would be expected to hold a Green rating;
White - The first step on the ladder and a minimum before pilots could fly in Instrument Flight Rules weather conditions.
Each level had its own margins of error within which the pilot must fly whilst performing set manoeuvres "under the hood".   The examination was an Instrument Rating Test (IRT) and was obviously conducted on dual seat versions of the aircraft or in a similar type where there was no dual seat version, e.g. the Vampire or Meteor before the Hunter T7 was introduced.   It was usually carried out with the examinee flying with a hood that stopped him seeing the outside world and forced him to fly only on instruments.   The examiner, of course, had to fly in the clear so that he could maintain a lookout.   The test limits were applicable to each aircraft type and may differ depending on the performance of the aircraft.
A higher level rating was sought after as it allowed your Flight Commander to authorise you for solo flight in worst weather conditions than lower rated pilots.   (See Instrument Flight Rules)
I do not have a record of the test limits or content of a Hunter IRT and would be grateful if anyone could let me have a copy.
Green Endorsement Green endorsement would be made in his logbook if a pilot dealt with a situation well, for example an engine failure caused by technical failure and the pilot then making a forced landing in difficult terrain, saving the aircraft from serious damage and himself.
Green Salad NATO codeword for a piece of electronic equipment that allowed pilots to home on to transmitting aircraft without the aid of ground radar.   (Click to see full explanation.)
GRT Gross Register Tonnage - a ship's total internal volume expressed in "register tons", one of which equals a volume of 100 cubic feet (2.83 m3).
GS General Situation or General Staff or Geographic Services.
GSFG Group of Soviet Forces, Germany.
GSGS General Staff. Geographical Section.
GSK General Service Knowledge - one of the most important subjects in the RAF Promotion Exams.
GSM General Situations Map.
GSO German Service Organisation.
GSOFG Group of Soviet Occupying Forces Germany.
GSR Gun Sight Retractable.
GW Grading Wing or Guided Weapon.
GWM Ground Wireless Mechanic.
Gyro This was the use of the gyro stabilised gunsight for air to ground firing. The aiming pipper was sloppy using the gyro but if it could be held steady on the target then allowances were automatically made for wind. The alternative was using the fixed cross in the gunsight, which was easier to fly and hold on to the target, and then judging for yourself what offset to allow for wind. Both methods could produce good scores and which was used was very much a personal preference of the pilot.
H High Altitude En-Route Chart preceded by identification.
H515 Code used in En-route document to indicate the type of fluid that is available at an airfield. H-515 is a hydraulic fluid and has a Joint Services Designation of OM-15.
HAF Hellenic Air Force.
HAL Hawker Aviation Limited.
HARMONISATION Harmonisation is the ground alignment of the guns in the aircraft so that the rounds go where the pipper aiming point is marking at the correct firing range.
HAS Hardened Aircraft Shelters.
HAT Height Above Touchdown.
HAYRAKE Codeword for heading for return to base.
HC High Commissioner.
HE High Explosive or High Energy.
HF High Frequency
HJ Code used in the En-route documents to indicate that the hours of operation are Sunrise to Sunset.
HLBF High Level Battle Formation.
HM Her (His) Majesty
HOGSHIT Holder of Golden Share Honorium Ilial Tenure [See golden Share Holders]
HP High Pressure or Horse Power.
HptFw Hauptfeldwebel - Warrant Officer Class III in the German Armed Forces.
HQFC Headquarters Fighter Command
HRH His/Her Royal Highness.
HSA Hawker Siddeley Aviation.
HSI High Speed Intercept
HV High Velocity.
HVAR High Velocity Aerial Rocket
I Interdiction.
IAA Internal Aids Approach.   An example as used on the Vulcan.   The Internal Aids approach was a means of talking down the pilot to a break-off height, using the H2S radar as the talk-down tool.   I used to like doing these, but I needed the OCU notes to remember how they were done.   The break off height was officially 600ft, but if the conditions were good then I have done them down to 300ft, provided the line-up was good and the pilots had good visual contact with the lights.   The idea was pretty simple, basically it involves using radar settings to 'frig' range markers and heading indicator.   The true runway heading is a known, so a heading marker can be set up on the PPI with the 585 set in PC and EMERGENCY mode.   The radar height dial can be set so that it produces a range marker at defined ranges. You now have a range and bearing marker.   In the diagram below the aircraft can fly to the overhead, then go out on the downwind leg to a 10 mile point, at a height allocated by ATC; at this point the pilot turns 'base' and descends at 2100ft AGL.   With the range marker on the PPI, and the airfield also showing and the 1/4mil. scale the Nav Radar then turns the aircraft to runway heading (allowing for a/c turning circle) so that the pilots will ideally roll out with the heading marker straight down the runway.   The Radar will call heading adjustments to the pilot to keep the runway tracking down the heading marker as the aircraft approaches the airfield.   At this time the pilot maintains 2100ft.   Using the table at the bottom of this entry the range marker can be set at desired range points; with 42,000ft on the emergency height pot he has a 7 mile marker. When the touchdown point hits the range ring the Radar calls for a 300ft/mile descent rate.   From this point on the Radar monitors the tracking of the runway along the heading marker to ensure he stays on runway centre line, at the same time the Plotter cranks in the new emergency height settings each time a range point is hit.   So, having started at 7 miles, the plotter sets up the 6 mile marker while the Radar monitors runway heading.   Once the six mile marker is hit he tells the pilot the range and that he should now be 1,800ft AGL.   The pilot maintains correct rate of descent for each mile mark called while the Radar monitors heading.   When the 2 mile marker is hit the aircraft should be 600ft AGL and if all has gone to plan the pilot is at break off with the runway on the nose.   He may then elect to continue the talk down to 300ft if he's comfortable.   But not officially.   Done well they are a good crew exercise, and who knows when it might be needed in an emergency.   
Emergency Height set (ft)   Range in miles   Aircraft height above touchdown
42,0001px-trans.gif, 43 bytes71px-trans.gif, 43 bytes2,100
36,0001px-trans.gif, 43 bytes61px-trans.gif, 43 bytes1,800
30,0001px-trans.gif, 43 bytes51px-trans.gif, 43 bytes1,500
24,0001px-trans.gif, 43 bytes41px-trans.gif, 43 bytes1,200
18,0001px-trans.gif, 43 bytes31px-trans.gif, 43 bytes   900
12,0001px-trans.gif, 43 bytes21px-trans.gif, 43 bytes   600
  6,2001px-trans.gif, 43 bytes11px-trans.gif, 43 bytes   300
IAF Israeli Air Force.
IAM Instrument Approach Minima given for an airfield in the En-route documents.
IAS Indicated Air Speed
I/C In Charge of
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organisation.
ICBM Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile.
ICYP Ill Call You Pod.   Life story of Ken Senar.   [Click to see].
IDC Imperial Defence College.
IDF Interceptor Day Fighter.
IDS InterDictor/Strike.
IEE Institution of Electrical Engineers.   The Institution of Electrical Engineers (I.E.E., pronounced I-double-E or I-E-E) was a British professional organisation of electronics, electrical, manufacturing, and Information Technology professionals, especially electrical engineers.   The I.E.E. was founded in 1871 as the Society of Telegraph Engineers, changed its name in 1880 to the Society of Telegraph Engineers and Electricians and changed it again to the Institution of Electrical Engineers in 1889. It was Incorporated by a Royal Charter in 1921.   In 1980 the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE) merged with the Institution of Electronic and Radio Engineers (IERE), originally the British Institution of Radio Engineers (Brit IRE).
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.   The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE, read I-Triple-E) is a professional association headquartered in New York City that is dedicated to advancing technological innovation and excellence.   It has about 425,000 members in about 160 countries, slightly less than half of whom reside in the United States.
IERE Institution of Electronics and Radio Engineers.   Mid 20th century The Institution of Electronics and Radio Engineers (IERE) was founded.   1965 The Society of Electronics and Radio Technicians (SERT) founded by amalgamation of IERE with Radio Trades Examination Board (RTEB).   SERT then supported RTEB renamed as the Electronics Examination Board (EEB).   1990 IEEIE and SERT merged to form the Institution of Electronics and Electrical Incorporated Engineers (IEEIE).   1998 IEEIE, IMechIE and IET merged to form the Institution of Incorporated Engineers in electronic, electrical and mechanical Engineering (IIE).   2006 IIE and IEE (Institution of Electrical Engineers) joined together to form the IET (Institution of Engineering and Technology).
IET Institution of Engineering and Technology.   The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) is the largest multidisciplinary professional engineering institution in the world.   The IET was formed in 2006 from two separate institutions: the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE), dating back to 1871, and the Institution of Incorporated Engineers (IIE) dating back to 1884.   Its worldwide membership is currently in excess of 153,000. The IET's main offices are in Savoy Place in London, England and at Michael Faraday House in Stevenage, England.   The IET has the authority to establish professional registration for the titles of Chartered Engineer, Incorporated Engineer, Engineering Technician, and ICT Technician, as a Licensed Member institution of the Engineering Council.
IF Instrument Flying
IFC Intergrated Fire Control for Nike missile systems.
IFF Identification Friend or Foe. Electronic equipment is used to avoid friendly fire incidents where units on the same side attack one another by mistake.
IFPE Instrument Flying Practice Equipment.
IFR Instrument Flight Rules.   These rules apply to aircraft that are being operated in conditions that are worse than Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC).   IMC limits are:
Visibility less than 5 nautical miles;
1,000 ft vertical clearance from cloud;
One nautical mile horizontally clear of cloud.
ILS Instrument Landing System is a radio aid to navigation, intending to facilitate aircraft in landing, which provides lateral and vertical guidance including indications of distance from the optimum point of landing.
IMC Instrument Meteorological Conditions.   Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling less than the minima specified for Visual Meteorological Conditions.   NOTE: In a controlled zone, a Visual Flight Rules flight may proceed under instrument meteorological conditions as if and as authorised by air traffic control.
IMN Indicated Mach Number.
INS International News Service.
IP Initial Point.   Easily identified point on the ground from which a ground attack run would be started.
IPN Iso-Propyl-Nitrate.   Highly flammable liquid fuel used by the Hunter F.6 Avon engine starter motor.
IQ Intelligence Quotient.
IRA Irish Republican Army
IRBM Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile.
IRE Instrument Rating Examiner.    The Instrument Rating Examiner is an experienced pilot who could test and award ratings to other pilots.   In the RAF the ratings were usually tested every 6 months.   As well as passing the test applicants had also to have certain minimum practical experience, e.g. hours of instrument flying both simulated and actual in the last 6 months.   The hierarchy of qualifications was as follows:
Command Instrument Rating Examiner (CIRE) - Able to test and award to other IREs and below in a Command;
Instrument Rating Examiner (IRE) - Able to examine and award the lower qualifications.   There might be one or two per squadron;
Master Green - Held by the most experienced and able pilots;
Green - Most experienced pilots in flying practice would be expected to hold a Green rating;
White - The first step on the ladder and a minimum before pilots could fly in Instrument Flight Rules weather conditions.
Each level had its own margins of error within which the pilot must fly whilst performing set manoeuvres "under the hood".   The examination was an Instrument Rating Test (IRT) and was obviously conducted on dual seat versions of the aircraft or in a similar type where there was no dual seat version, e.g. the Vampire or Meteor before the Hunter T7 was introduced.   It was usually carried out with the examinee flying with a hood that stopped him seeing the outside world and forced him to fly only on instruments.   The examiner, of course, had to fly in the clear so that he could maintain a lookout.   The test limits were applicable to each aircraft type and may differ depending on the performance of the aircraft.
A higher level rating was sought after as it allowed your Flight Commander to authorise you for solo flight in worst weather conditions than lower rated pilots.   (See Instrument Flight Rules)
I do not have a record of the test limits or content of a Hunter IRT and would be grateful if anyone could let me have a copy.
Also: Institute of Radio and Engineers.   The Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) was a professional organization which existed from 1912 until December 31, 1962. On January 1, 1963 it merged with the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) to form the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
IRS Instrument Rating Squadron.
IRT The Instrument Rating Test was used to grade pilots instrument flying ability and therefore to give them a rating.   In the RAF the ratings were usually tested every 6 months.   As well as passing the test applicants had also to have certain minimum practical experience, e.g. hours of instrument flying both simulated and actual in the last 6 months.   The hierarchy of qualifications was as follows:
Command Instrument Rating Examiner (CIRE) - Able to test and award to other IREs and below in a Command;
Instrument Rating Examiner (IRE) - Able to examine and award the lower qualifications.   There might be one or two per squadron;
Master Green - Held by the most experienced and able pilots;
Green - Most experienced pilots in flying practice would be expected to hold a Green rating;
White - The first step on the ladder and a minimum before pilots could fly in Instrument Flight Rules weather conditions.
Each level had its own margins of error within which the pilot must fly whilst performing set manoeuvres "under the hood".   The examination was an Instrument Rating Test (IRT) and was obviously conducted on dual seat versions of the aircraft or in a similar type where there was no dual seat version, e.g. the Vampire or Meteor before the Hunter T7 was introduced.   It was usually carried out with the examinee flying with a hood that stopped him seeing the outside world and forced him to fly only on instruments.   The examiner, of course, had to fly in the clear so that he could maintain a lookout.   The test limits were applicable to each aircraft type and may differ depending on the performance of the aircraft.
A higher level rating was sought after as it allowed your Flight Commander to authorise you for solo flight in worst weather conditions than lower rated pilots.   (See Instrument Flight Rules)
I do not have a record of the test limits or content of a Hunter IRT and would be grateful if anyone could let me have a copy.
ISA International Standard Atmosphere
ISBN International Standard Book Number
ITS Initial Training School.
ITW Initial Training Wing.
JAR Joint Aviation Requirements, being drawn up by 18 European states aimed at unifying airworthiness, flight crew licensing and other criteria among signatory nations.
JBG Jadgbombergeschwader .
JEHU Joint Experimental Helicopter Unit.
JFH Joint Force Harriers.
JNCO Junior Non-Commissioned Officer
JOC Joint Operations Centre.
JOKER R/T call made when a pre-briefed fuel level is reached.   This is usually the minimum fuel level and requires immediate recovery to base.
JP Justice of the Peace.
JPT Jet Pipe Temperature
JSF Joint Strike Fighter
JSL Jever Steam Laundry - see this site
JSSC Joint Services Staff College Latimer
J/T Junior Technician.
JTC Junior Training Corps.
KBE Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.   Order of Chivalry.  The Order was divided into military and civil divisions in December 1918.  The Order is limited to 100 Knights and Dames Grand Cross, 845 Knights and Dames Commanders, and 8,960 Commanders. Also, no more than 858 Officers and 1,464 Members may be appointed per year.
Kbps Kilo bits per secs. (Thousands).
KCB Knight Commander (or Dame Commander) Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, 1725.  Order of Chivalry.  Remodelled 1815, and enlarged many times since.  The Order is divided into civil and military divisions.  Women became eligible for the Order from 1 January 1971.  The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is the third-highest order of chivalry in the British honours system.  It is primarily awarded to serving member of the armed forces, and to some civilian servants.  While the term "Knight of the Bath" goes back into medieval times, referring to a ritual of washing followed by a night of prayer, the order was formally established by King George I on 18 May 1725.  Originally, the Order included the Sovereign, the Great Master and 36 Knights Companions.  The Order is presently limited to 120 Knights and Dames Grand Commanders, 355 Knights and Dames Commanders, and 1,925 Companions. The limit does not include foreign honorary members and Royal Knights.
KCMG Knight Commander or Dame Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince of Wales (later George IV) whilst he was acting as Prince Regent for his father, George III.   The Order includes three classes, in descending order of seniority:  Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GCMG),  Knight Commander or Dame Commander (KCMG or DCMG) and Companion (CMG).   It is used to honour individuals who have rendered important services in relation to Commonwealth or foreign nations.   People are appointed to the Order rather than awarded it.   Ambassadors are regularly appointed CMGs.   Ian Fleming's spy, James Bond, was fictionally decorated with the CMG in 1953 (mentioned in the novel From Russia with Love).   The Order's motto is Auspicium melioris aevi (Latin for "Token of a better age").   Its patron saints, as the name suggests, are St Michael the Archangel and St George.   One of its primary symbols is that of St Michael trampling over Satan.   The Order is the sixth-most senior in the British honours system, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick, The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, and The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India.   The third of the aforementioned Orders-which relates to Ireland, no longer a part of the United Kingdom-still exists but is in disuse; no appointments have been made to it since 1934.   The last of the Orders on the list, related to India, has also been in disuse since the country's independence in 1947.   It is sometimes humorously said that the abbreviations actually stand for "Call Me God" (CMG), "Kindly (or Kings) Call Me God" (KCMG) and "God Calls Me God" (GCMG).   These became generally known from the television series Yes Minister, but were in use in the Diplomatic Service long before that.
KCVO Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order, 1896.  Order of Chivalry.  The Royal Victorian Order is a part of the British honours system which was established in 1896, and is usually awarded to personal servants of the Queen. Also, unlike most other British orders, it is within the personal gift of the Sovereign, rather than being awarded by the Sovereign upon the advice of the Prime Minister.
KD Khaki Drill - tropical uniform.
KG Knight of the garter.  Order of Chivalry.  The Most Noble Order of the Garter, founded in 1348, is the highest order of chivalry existing in England and is dedicated to the image and arms of St. George as England's patron saint.   It is bestowed on recipients from British and other Commonwealth realms.   After peerages (and after the Victoria Cross and George Cross), it is the pinnacle of the honours system in the United Kingdom.   Membership in the order is limited to the Sovereign, the Prince of Wales, and no more than twenty-four members, or Companions.   The order also includes supernumerary knights and ladies (e.g., members of the British Royal Family and foreign monarchs).   Bestowing the honour has been described as one of the Monarch's few remaining truly personal, executive prerogatives.   The order's emblem, depicted on insignia, is a garter with the motto Honi soit qui mal y pense (Middle French: "shame upon him who thinks evil upon it") in gold lettering.   Members of the order wear such a garter on ceremonial occasions.   Most British honours encompass the whole United Kingdom, but the topmost three each pertain to one constituent nation.   The Order of the Garter, pertaining to England and Wales, is senior in age and precedence; The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle pertains to Scotland; and the now-dormant The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick pertains to Ireland.   New appointments to the Order of the Garter are always announced on St George's Day, 23 April, as Saint George is the patron saint of England.
KIAS Knots Indicated Air Speed.
KOYLI King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry.
KVA Kilo Volt Ampere.
L Low Altitude En-Route Chart preceded by identification and Light.
L6 Runway or Strip High Intensity lighting code in En-route documents.
L7 Approach Lights High Intensity lighting code in En-route documents.
L9 Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI) lighting code in En-route documents.
LAA Light Anti-Aircraft
LAC Leading Aircraftsman
LAF Lebanese Air Force.
Lagoon Coastal anti-shipping sortie, WWII.
LAM Long Aerial Mines
LAN Línea Aérea Nacional - Chile's national airline.
LDA Land Development Aircraft built and designed by David Lockspeiser.   (Click to see description).
LHOX Code used in En-route document to indicate the type of oxygen that is available at an airfield. LHOX is low and high pressure oxygen.
LHS Left Hand Side.
LLB Bachelor of Laws or Low Level Battle.
LMG Light Machine Gun
LOX Code used in En-route document to indicate the type of oxygen that is available at an airfield. LOX is liquid oxygen.
LP Low Pressure.
LTC LieuTenant Colonel.
LTI Local Technical Instruction.
LV Low Velocity.
LVO Lieutenant of the Royal Victorian Order.   The Royal Victorian Order is a dynastic order of knighthood recognising distinguished personal service to the order's Sovereign, currently the reigning monarch of the Commonwealth realms, any members of their family, or any viceroy.   Established in 1896, the order's chapel is the Savoy Chapel, its official day is 20 June, and its motto is Victoria, alluding to the society's founder, Queen Victoria.   There are no limits on the number honoured, and admission remains the personal gift of the monarch, with each of the organisation's five grades and one medal with three levels representing different levels of service.   While all honoured receive the ability to use the prescribed styles of the orderthe top two levels grant titles of knighthood, and all accord distinct post-nominal lettersthe Royal Victorian Order's precedence amongst other honours differs from realm to realm, and admission to some grades may be barred by government policy.   Though similarly named, the Royal Victorian Order is not related to the Royal Victorian Chain.
RoyalVictorianOrder.jpg, 12255 bytes
M/T Mechanical Transport or Motor Transport.
MA Master of Arts degree
MAC Mean Aerodynamic Chord.
MACH NUMBER MACH Number indicates aircraft speed relative to the speed of sound at the same place. Mach 1.0 at sea level under standard conditions is 761 mph. At 35,000feet it is 663 mph. Mach number is important as there are serious drag rises as the aircraft approaches the speed of sound.
MAFL Manual of Air Force Law.
MAP Ministry of Aircraft Production
MAJOR Major servicing is the largest and most infrequent of an aircraft's ground servicing schedule.   Servicing work in the Royal Air Force is based on the premise that it can be divided into two main types: predictable, which includes replenishment, adjustment, lubrication and anti-deterioration measures and unpredictable which is work which must be carried out to rectify random defects.   The policy for aircraft servicing is a compromise between the two extremes of very frequent and extremely comprehensive predictable servicing (preventive in aim) and no predictable work at all, defects being rectified as they occur.   The former would result in unacceptably low aircraft utilization and the latter would result not only in a lack of servicing plan, but could also give rise to an unacceptable number of hazardous in-flight situations.   The aim then is to produce a servicing policy which will effect the best compromise between these two extremes and will:

     a.   Reduce to an acceptable level the number of random defects arising.
     b.   Obtain the most economic use of the available technical manpower and resources.

Aircraft servicing in the Royal Air Force is founded on a system of regular or periodic servicing which can be divided into two groups:

     a.   That servicing which is necessary to maintain an aircraft fit for flight from day to day and consists mainly of replenishment, re-arming and checks for any obvious signs of defects.   This servicing is referred to as flight servicing (before, turn-round, or after-flight).

     b.   That servicing which is necessary to maintain an aircraft in a sound overall condition such that it will require the minimum of day-to-day attention.   This type of servicing is termed routine servicing and can include such operations as anti-deterioration measures, lubrication, adjustment, functional checks, replacement of components and comprehensive inspection in order to detect failures.   Since the depth of the work in this group usually increases as the time between servicing increases, it is convenient to differentiate between servicing by using such terms as Primary, Minor and Major.

     The periodicity of the servicing cycle is amended to meet the operational needs of the Commands, having regard to the reliability of the equipment they are called upon to operate.   A typical cycle showing the type and time of servicing is as follows:

     a.   Primary.   Each period of 50 flying hours or at intervals of one month.   This servicing includes an examination of the aircraft obvious defects, together with essential functional checks and lubrication of certain equipments.

     b.   Minor.   Each period of 200 flying hours or at intervals of four months.   This servicing includes an examination of the aircraft for defects, deterioration, corrosion and wear, and the lubrication of certain parts to a greater degree than is normally done at a primary servicing.   It affords the opportunity to carry out modifications, Special Technical Instructions (STIs) and Servicing Instructions (Sis) which may not have been implemented during the day-to-day servicing.

     c.   Major.   Each period of 800 flying hours or at intervals of twelve months.   This servicing includes a detailed examination of the aircraft, the changing of worn parts and adjustment or calibration of equipment necessary to maintain the required standards, in addition to the work which is normally done at minor servicings.
(Thanks to AP 3456E Part 2, Sect 1,Chap 1 Feb71)
MAN Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg SE, formerly MAN AG, is a German mechanical engineering company and parent company of the MAN Group.   MAN SE is based in Munich, in the German state of Bavaria.   Its primary output is for the automotive industry, particularly heavy trucks.   Further activities include the production of diesel engines for various applications, like ship propulsion, and also turbomachinery.
MARBLE ARCH Code name for a geographic feature in the area of RAF Jever. Anyone remember where it was?
MASTER GREEN CARD The Master Green Card is the highest instrument flying experience rating below an Instrument Rating Examiner (IRE).   In the RAF the ratings were usually tested every 6 months.   As well as passing the test applicants had also to have certain minimum practical experience, e.g. hours of instrument flying both simulated and actual in the last 6 months.   The hierarchy of qualifications was as follows:
Command Instrument Rating Examiner (CIRE) - Able to test and award to other IREs and below in a Command;
Instrument Rating Examiner (IRE) - Able to examine and award the lower qualifications.   There might be one or two per squadron;
Master Green - Held by the most experienced and able pilots;
Green - Most experienced pilots in flying practice would be expected to hold a Green rating;
White - The first step on the ladder and a minimum before pilots could fly in Instrument Flight Rules weather conditions.
Each level had its own margins of error within which the pilot must fly whilst performing set manoeuvres "under the hood".   The examination was an Instrument Rating Test (IRT) and was obviously conducted on dual seat versions of the aircraft or in a similar type where there was no dual seat version, e.g. the Vampire or Meteor before the Hunter T7 was introduced.   It was usually carried out with the examinee flying with a hood that stopped him seeing the outside world and forced him to fly only on instruments.   The examiner, of course, had to fly in the clear so that he could maintain a lookout.   The test limits were applicable to each aircraft type and may differ depending on the performance of the aircraft.
A higher level rating was sought after as it allowed your Flight Commander to authorise you for solo flight in worst weather conditions than lower rated pilots.   (See Instrument Flight Rules)
I do not have a record of the test limits or content of a Hunter IRT and would be grateful if anyone could let me have a copy.
MAYDAY Distress call by aircraft in the air on VHF 121.5 MHz or UHF 243 MHz.  Emergency Calls are graded as follows:
(a) Distress Radio call: MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY, followed by the aircraft callsign 3 times. On wireless telegraphy it is SOS SOS SOS and aircraft callsign 3 times.
(b) Urgency Radio call: PAN PAN PAN, followed by the aircraft callsign 3 times. On wireless telegraphy it is XXX XXX XXX and aircraft callsign once.
Both emergency messages must then contain the following information:
(a) Estimated position and time,
(b) Heading (true) and airspeed (indicated),
(c) Flight Level or altitude,
(d) Type of aircraft,
(e) Nature of emergency and assistance required,
(f) Intention of the captain,
(g) Endurance remaining.
MBE Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, 1917.  Order of Chivalry.  The Order was divided into military and civil divisions in December 1918.  The Order is limited to 100 Knights and Dames Grand Cross, 845 Knights and Dames Commanders, and 8,960 Commanders. Also, no more than 858 Officers and 1,464 Members may be appointed per year.
MBIM Member of the British Institute of Management
Mbps Mega bits per secs. (Millions).
MC Military Cross.  First instituted on 28th December 1914 as an award for gallantry or meritorious service, for officers with the rank of Captain and below, and for Warrant Officers (NCO's with warrant - at the time, this was only a Regimental Sergeant-Major) and, in August 1916, it became possible to award a bar or bars to the MC, for repeated acts of gallantry.  A rosette worn with the medal ribbon denoted the bar.  All awards of the MC were announced in the London Gazette, usually with a citation, although awards made as part of the Birthday or New Year's honours were made for reasons of meritorious service and do not usually have a citation.  37,081 Mc's were awarded; in addition 2,992 men were awarded a bar to the MC; 176 a second bar; and 4 men ( Capt. P. Bentley [KOYLI]; Lieut. H. Gilkes [21st Bn, London Regiment]; T/Capt. C. Timms [RAMC]; 2/Lieut. F. Wallington [RFA]) a third bar.
M.C. Medium Capacity or Motor Cycle.
MCC Military Corrective Centre.
MC/S Mega Cycles.
MDA Minimum Descent Altitude (USAF/NATO), (given as Runway/minimum height in feet) or Master Diversion Airfield.
MDAF Military Demonstration, Analysis and Feedback (US Army).
ME Middle East or Messerschmitt.
MECH Mechanic.
MFPS Mobile Field Photographic Squadron.
MGS Maidstone Grammar School.
MIA Missing In Action.
mic Microphone.
MIET Member of the Institution of Engineering and Technology.   The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) is the largest multidisciplinary professional engineering institution in the world.   The IET was formed in 2006 from two separate institutions: the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE), dating back to 1871, and the Institution of Incorporated Engineers (IIE) dating back to 1884.   Its worldwide membership is currently in excess of 153,000. The IET's main offices are in Savoy Place in London, England and at Michael Faraday House in Stevenage, England.   The IET has the authority to establish professional registration for the titles of Chartered Engineer, Incorporated Engineer, Engineering Technician, and ICT Technician, as a Licensed Member institution of the Engineering Council.
MINOR Minor servicing is the second largest and second most infrequent of an aircraft's ground servicing schedule.   Servicing work in the Royal Air Force is based on the premise that it can be divided into two main types: predictable, which includes replenishment, adjustment, lubrication and anti-deterioration measures and unpredictable which is work which must be carried out to rectify random defects.   The policy for aircraft servicing is a compromise between the two extremes of very frequent and extremely comprehensive predictable servicing (preventive in aim) and no predictable work at all, defects being rectified as they occur.   The former would result in unacceptably low aircraft utilization and the latter would result not only in a lack of servicing plan, but could also give rise to an unacceptable number of hazardous in-flight situations.   The aim then is to produce a servicing policy which will effect the best compromise between these two extremes and will:

     a.   Reduce to an acceptable level the number of random defects arising.
     b.   Obtain the most economic use of the available technical manpower and resources.

Aircraft servicing in the Royal Air Force is founded on a system of regular or periodic servicing which can be divided into two groups:

     a.   That servicing which is necessary to maintain an aircraft fit for flight from day to day and consists mainly of replenishment, re-arming and checks for any obvious signs of defects.   This servicing is referred to as flight servicing (before, turn-round, or after-flight).

     b.   That servicing which is necessary to maintain an aircraft in a sound overall condition such that it will require the minimum of day-to-day attention.   This type of servicing is termed routine servicing and can include such operations as anti-deterioration measures, lubrication, adjustment, functional checks, replacement of components and comprehensive inspection in order to detect failures.   Since the depth of the work in this group usually increases as the time between servicing increases, it is convenient to differentiate between servicing by using such terms as Primary, Minor and Major.

     The periodicity of the servicing cycle is amended to meet the operational needs of the Commands, having regard to the reliability of the equipment they are called upon to operate.   A typical cycle showing the type and time of servicing is as follows:

     a.   Primary.   Each period of 50 flying hours or at intervals of one month.   This servicing includes an examination of the aircraft obvious defects, together with essential functional checks and lubrication of certain equipments.

     b.   Minor.   Each period of 200 flying hours or at intervals of four months.   This servicing includes an examination of the aircraft for defects, deterioration, corrosion and wear, and the lubrication of certain parts to a greater degree than is normally done at a primary servicing.   It affords the opportunity to carry out modifications, Special Technical Instructions (STIs) and Servicing Instructions (Sis) which may not have been implemented during the day-to-day servicing.

     c.   Major.   Each period of 800 flying hours or at intervals of twelve months.   This servicing includes a detailed examination of the aircraft, the changing of worn parts and adjustment or calibration of equipment necessary to maintain the required standards, in addition to the work which is normally done at minor servicings.
(Thanks to AP 3456E Part 2, Sect 1,Chap 1 Feb71)
MM Military Medal.   The Military Medal (MM) was (until 1993) a military decoration awarded to personnel of the British Army and other services, and formerly also to personnel of other Commonwealth countries, below commissioned rank, for bravery in battle on land.   The medal was established on 25 March 1916.   It was the other ranks' equivalent to the Military Cross, which was awarded to commissioned officers and Warrant Officers (although WOs could also be awarded the MM), although it took precedence below that decoration as well as the Distinguished Conduct Medal, also awarded to non-commissioned members of the Army.   Recipients of the Military Medal are entitled to use the post-nominal letters "MM".   In 1993, the Military Medal was discontinued, and since then the Military Cross has been awarded to personnel of all ranks.   Description   A circular silver medal of 36 mm diameter.   The obverse bears the effigy of the reigning monarch.   The reverse has the inscription 'FOR BRAVERY IN THE FIELD' in four lines, surrounded by a laurel wreath, surmounted by the Royal Cypher and Imperial Crown.   The suspender is of an ornate scroll type.   The ribbon is dark blue, 1.25 inches wide, with five equal centre stripes of white, red, white, red, and white (0.125 inches each).   Silver, laurelled bars are authorised for subsequent awards.   (Thanks to Wikopedia).
Military_Medal_(UK)[1].jpg, 4257 bytes
MO Medical Officer
MOD Ministry of Defence or Modification
MOTE Missile Overall Test Equipment used for fault analysis and servicing for the Bloodhound Mk2.
MOTU Maritime Operational Training Unit.
MP Maintenance Period or Military Police or Member of Parliament.
MQ Married Quarter.
MR Maritime Reconnaissance.
MRAF Marshal of the Royal Air Force.
MRS Master Radar Station.
MRSU Mobile Repair and Salvage Unit.
MSc Master of Science.
MSL Mean Sea Level.
MSM Meritorious Service Medal.  The Meritorious Service Medal and the Meritorious Service Cross is awarded by the reigning monarch of Canada (presently Queen Elizabeth II) and is presented on her behalf by the Governor General.  There is both a Military and Civilian version (the latter being a much rarer decoration.  It may be awarded to both Canadian and non-Canadians.   The military division recognizes individuals for outstanding professionalism and for bringing honour to the Canadian Forces.  The civilian division recognizes contributions that bring honour to Canada in any field, from athletics to diplomatic relations to humanitarian activities.  Non-Canadians can be recognized in either division.
MT Mechanical Transport or Motor Transport.
MTMA Military Terminal Movement Area.
MTO Mechanical Transport or Motor Transport Officer.
MTRU Mechanical Transport Repair Unit.
MTSS Mechanical Transport Servicing Squadron.
MU Maintenance Unit
MUTTON See Aerial Mines exercise.
MVO member of the Royal Victorian Order.   The Royal Victorian Order (French: Ordre royal de Victoria) is a dynastic order of knighthood and a house order of chivalry recognising distinguished personal service to the order's Sovereign, the reigning monarch of the Commonwealth realms, any members of her family, or any of her viceroys.   Established in 1896, the order's chapel is the Savoy Chapel, its official day is 20 June, and its motto is Victoria, alluding to the society's founder, Queen Victoria.   There are no limits on the number of inductees, and admission remains the personal gift of the monarch,[1] with each of the organization's five hierarchical grades and one medal with three levels representing different levels of service.   While all members receive the ability to use the prescribed styles of the order  the top two levels grant titles of knighthood, and all accord distinct post-nominal letters  the Royal Victorian Order's precedence amongst other honours differs from realm to realm, and admission to some grades may be barred by government policy. Though similarly named, the Royal Victorian Order is not related to the Royal Victorian Chain.   Prior to the close of the 19th century, most general honours within the British Empire were bestowed by the sovereign on the advice of his or her British ministers, who sometimes forwarded advice from ministers of the Crown in the Dominions and colonies.   The then most senior orders of chivalry were the Most Noble Order of the Garter and the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, and were within the sovereign's personal gift, as had been since Medifval times, but were limited to a combined 40 common-members. Queen Victoria thus established on 21 April 1896 the Royal Victorian Order as a junior and personal order of knighthood that allowed her to bestow directly to an empire-wide community honours for personal services.   The organization was founded a year preceding Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, so as to give the Queen time to complete a list of first inductees.   The order's official day was made 20 June of each year, marking the anniversary of Queen Victoria's accession to the throne.   After 1931, when the Commonwealth of Nations came into being and the former Dominions of the British Empire became independent states, equal in status to the UK, the Royal Victorian Order remained an honour open to all the King's realms; thus, as with the monarch who conferred it, the order ceased to be purely British.   The order was also open to foreigners since its inception, the Prefect of Alpes-Maritimes and the Mayor of Nice being the first to receive the honour in 1896.   The reigning monarch of each of the Commonwealth realms is at the apex of the Royal Victorian Order as its Sovereign, followed by the Grand Master; the latter position was created in 1937, and was occupied by Queen Elizabeth (later the Queen Mother) from that date until her death in 2002.   Queen Elizabeth II then in 2007 appointed her daughter, Anne, Princess Royal, to the position in 2007.   Succeeding these two individuals are the five officials of the organization: the Chancellor, occupied by the Lord Chamberlain; the Secretary, occupied by the Keeper of the Privy Purse and Treasurer to the Queen; the Registrar, occupied by the Secretary to the Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood; the Chaplain, occupied by the Chaplain of the Queen's Chapel of the Savoy; and the Genealogist.   Thereafter follows the members of the order, who are divided into five hierarchical grades  the highest two conferring accolades of knighthood and all having accordant post-nominal letters  and, lastly, the holders of the Royal Victorian Medal in either gold, silver, or bronze.   Foreigners may be admitted as honorary members, there are no limits to the population of any grade, and promotions are possible.   The styles of knighthood are not used by princes, princesses, or peers in the upper most ranks of the society, save for when their names are written in their fullest forms for the most official occasions.   Retiring Deans of the Royal Peculiars of St. George's Chapel at Windsor Castle and Westminster Abbey are customarily inducted as Knights Commander; clergymen appointed to the higher levels of the Royal Victorian Order do not use the associated styles, however, and honorary members are not permitted to hold them at all.   Prior to 1984, the grades of Lieutenant and Member were classified as Members (fourth class) and Members (fifth class), respectively, but both with the post-nominals MVO.   On 31 December of that year, Queen Elizabeth II declared that those in the grade of Member (fourth class) would henceforth be Lieutenants with the post-nominals LVO.
N/A Not Applicable or Available or National Archives.
NAAFI Navy, Army and Air Forces Institute
NAS Naval Air Service
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
NATS National Air Traffic Service (Ltd).
NAV Navigation.
Nav Comp Mk.4 RAF Mk.4 Height and True Airspeed Navigation Computer.
This light aluminium slide rule especially designed for solving navigation problems, is issued to all aircrew and is usually available in the Flight Planning rooms.  The computer is double sided, marked TRUE AIRSPEED on one face, and TIME-SPEED and ALTITUDE on the other.   It consists of four circular engraved discs which can be rotated independently around a hollow central studSabre150.jpg, 30006 bytes

True Airspeed face

. Airspeed Correction Scales.
The airspeed correction scales above are engraved on three of the disks   The innermost disc carries a temperature scale reading from +40°C to -80°C, and a pressure scale which moves against a lubber line marked on the middle disc.   A spring arm on the inner disc engages with the serrated underside of a bridge-piece on the middle disc so that the two discs can be rotated together without disturbing the pressure setting   A window is provided in the middle disc so that the indicated height on the outer disc can be set against the corrected air temperature.Sabre151.jpg, 26547 bytes

Time-Speed and Altitude face

Time Speed and Altitude Scales..
The time-speed and altitude scales above form a circular slide rule consisting of two logarithmic scales which are engraved TIME MINUTES and MILES on the inner and outer discs respectively.   For altitude correction problems a window is set in the lower half of the inner disc, whilst for speed problems a window is provided in the upper half of the same disc.   The scales can be used for:
a.   Correction of indicated barometric altitude to true altitude.
b.   Interconversion of the following units:
     (1)  Nautical miles, statute miles, and kilometres.
     (2)  Knots, mph, and kph.
     (3)  Feet and metres
c.   Solution of time, speed and distance problems, and other multiplication and division problems.

RAF Dead Reckoning Computer, Mark 4 Sabre152.jpg, 33338 bytes
The RAF Dead Reckoning Computer Mk 4 is designed for solving the vector triangle problems of air navigation.   An altitude and airspeed computer based on the International Convention on Air Navigation (ICAN) standard atmosphere is also incorporated.   The computer consists of a metal frame carrying on one side a transparent plotting disc in a graduated compass rose, and on the other a circular slide rule for altitude and airspeed computation.   A reversible sliding card printed with concentric speed arcs, radial drift lines and a rectangular grid, moves under the plotting disc.
The DR Computer reproduces within the rotatable compass rose that part of the triangle of velocities with which the navigator is primarily concerned, ie it shows the wind vector applied between the heading/true airspeed and the track/groundspeed vectors.
It is unnecessary to have the whole of the vector triangle shown on the DR Computer and therefore only the essential part of the triangle, that containing the wind vector, is shown.   The computer may be used over a range of speeds by adjusting the sliding card so that the curve corresponding to the true airspeed lies under the centre of the compass rose.   The range of true airspeed on the DR Computer Mk 4 is 80 to 800 (80 to 400 on one side of the sliding card and 250 to 800 on the other) and may be in any units (knots, mph, etc), provided that the same units are used for all components of the vector triangle.
Thus the transparent disc acts as a plotting dial on which only the wind vector is drawn the heading vector being represented by the centre line on the sliding card and the track vector by the appropriate radial line.   The centre of the disc is shown by a small circle which normally marks the end of the heading vector.   (Click to see an example of its use.) (Thanks to the Royal Air Force Flying Manual AP 3456G Volume G Air Navigation.)
NB Nota Bene - note well or Not Below.
NBG No Bloody Good
NCO Non-Commissioned Officer
NDB Non-Directional Beacon.
NEAF Near East Air Force.
NF Night Fighter.
NH New Hampshire.
NI Northern Ireland.
NM Nautical Miles.
No Ball WWII codeword for attacks on V1 Rocket launch sites in Northern France.
NorthAG Northern Army Group
NS National Service
NSC National Service Commission.
NSU Neckar and SUlm - German car and motorcycle manufacturers.
NU Nose Up.
NVA Nationale Volksarmee.   East German Armed Forces.
O123 Code used in En-route document to indicate the type of oil that is available at an airfield. O-123 has a Joint Services Designation of OMD-60.
O125 Code used in En-route document to indicate the type of oil that is available at an airfield. O-125 has a Joint Services Designation of OMD-250.
O135 Code used in En-route document to indicate the type of oil that is available at an airfield. O-135 has a Joint Services Designation of OM-11.
O138 Code used in En-route document to indicate the type of oil that is available at an airfield. O-138 has a Joint Services Designation of OM-71.
O148 Code used in En-route document to indicate the type of oil that is available at an airfield. O-148 has a Joint Services Designation of OX-14.
O149 Code used in En-route document to indicate the type of oil that is available at an airfield. O-149 has a Joint Services Designation of OX-38.
O2 Oxygen.
OAT Outside Air Temperature.
OATS Officers Advanced Training School.
OBE Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, 1917.  Order of Chivalry.  The Order was divided into military and civil divisions in December 1918.  The Order is limited to 100 Knights and Dames Grand Cross, 845 Knights and Dames Commanders, and 8,960 Commanders. Also, no more than 858 Officers and 1,464 Members may be appointed per year.
OC Officer Commanding
OCTS Officer Cadet Training School.
OCTU Officer Cadet Training Unit.
OCU Operational Conversion Unit
OD Other Denominations.
OH Over Head.
OHMS On Her Majesty's Service.
OLEO On the Hunter this was the undercarriage leg which was hydraulically compressible to cushion landings.
OM Order of Merit.   The Order of Merit (French: Ordre du Mirite) is a dynastic order recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, science, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture.   Established in 1902 by King Edward VII, admission into the order remains the personal gift of its Sovereign, the reigning monarch of the Commonwealth realms, and is limited to 24 living recipients at one time from these countries plus a limited number of honorary members.   While all members receive the ability to use the post-nominal letters OM and a medallion for life, the Order of Merit's precedence amongst other honours differs amongst Commonwealth realms or Officers' Mess.
OMQ Officers' Married Quarters.
OP Operation or Observation Post or Point.
OPSB Chief Controller's Assistant.   Fighter Control post also known as Ops. B.
OQ Officer Qualities.
OR Other Ranks - airmen.
ORANGES Codeword for the weather state at base.
ORB Operations Record Book - F540.
ORP Operational Readiness Platform
OTU Operational Training Unit
Outer Basket Those associate members who did not actually serve at RAF Jever.
OVRN Overrun.
P1 Code designation for personnel staff at all levels who dealt with personnel matters, such as conditions of service, leave etc.
P Primary.
PA Personal Assistant.
PAF Pakistan Air Force.
PAI Pilot Attack Instructor
PAN Urgency call by aircraft in the air on VHF 121.5 MHz or UHF 243 MHz.  Emergency Calls are graded as follows:
(a) Distress Radio call: MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY, followed by the aircraft callsign 3 times. On wireless telegraphy it is SOS SOS SOS and aircraft callsign 3 times.
(b) Urgency Radio call: PAN PAN PAN, followed by the aircraft callsign 3 times. On wireless telegraphy it is XXX XXX XXX and aircraft callsign once.
Both emergency messages must then contain the following information:
(a) Estimated position and time,
(b) Heading (true) and airspeed (indicated),
(c) Flight Level or altitude,
(d) Type of aircraft,
(e) Nature of emergency and assistance required,
(f) Intention of the captain,
(g) Endurance remaining.
PAR Precision Approach Radar.
PARA Parallel.
PBO Poor Bloody Observer
PBX Private Branch Exchange.
PC Personal Computer or Permanent Commission or Member of the Privy Council.
PCP Positive Coarse Pitch.
PDC Personnel Despatch Unit.
PDQ Pretty Damn Quick.
PE Permanent Echo - on radar screens caused by permanent reflective objects in the area or Physical Education.
PEC Pressure Error Correction.
PETLO Pre-Entry Training Liaison Officer.
PF Code used in En-route documents to indicate frequency on which to contact the Primary and Final Talkdown.
PFI Physical Fitness Instructor.
PFL Practice Forced Landing.
PFO Physical Fitness Officer.
PFOL Practice Flame Out Landing.
PFS Code used in En-route documents to indicate frequency on which to contact the Primary and Final Talkdown Service.
PGH Code letters that are not an acronym for anything. It is a procedure for recovery to the airfield, usually from overhead the base. Also known as CDTC - Controlled Descent Through Cloud.   PGH is believed to be this procedure but without the use of Air Traffic Control.
PhD Doctor of Philosophy.
PI Practice Interception
PIDGEONS Codeword used in fighter interceptions and means I require a course to Steer with wind applied and distance to a specified position.
PMC President of the Mess Committee
PMO Principal Medical Officer.
PMRAFNS Princess Mary's Royal Air Force Nursing Service. Formed in 1918, adopted RAF ranks in 1978.
PMUB Presbyterian Methodist and United Board.
PN Pilots Notes.
POL Petrol, Oil and Lubricants.
PONGO Slang term for Army personnel.
Popular Armed reconnaissance mission in WWII.
PoW Prisoner of War
PP Piss Poor or Per procurationem (used when signing a letter on someone else's behalf).
PPAN Practice PAN. Practice urgency call by aircraft in the air on VHF 121.5 MHz or UHF 243 MHz.  Emergency Calls are graded as follows:
(a) Distress Radio call: MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY, followed by the aircraft callsign 3 times. On wireless telegraphy it is SOS SOS SOS and aircraft callsign 3 times.
(b) Urgency Radio call: PAN PAN PAN, followed by the aircraft callsign 3 times. On wireless telegraphy it is XXX XXX XXX and aircraft callsign once.
Both emergency messages must then contain the following information:
(a) Estimated position and time,
(b) Heading (true) and airspeed (indicated),
(c) Flight Level or altitude,
(d) Type of aircraft,
(e) Nature of emergency and assistance required,
(f) Intention of the captain,
(g) Endurance remaining.
PPI Plan Position Indicator.   This is a cathode ray tube on which is displayed a rotating radar trace which shows in its afterglow the location of echoes known as blips or, in more modern terminology, 'paints'.
PPL Private Pilot's Licence.
PR Photographic Reconnaissance or Public Relations.
Primary Primary and Primary* were two of the most frequent of an aircraft's ground servicing schedule.   Servicing work in the Royal Air Force is based on the premise that it can be divided into two main types: predictable, which includes replenishment, adjustment, lubrication and anti-deterioration measures and unpredictable which is work which must be carried out to rectify random defects.   The policy for aircraft servicing is a compromise between the two extremes of very frequent and extremely comprehensive predictable servicing (preventive in aim) and no predictable work at all, defects being rectified as they occur.   The former would result in unacceptably low aircraft utilization and the latter would result not only in a lack of servicing plan, but could also give rise to an unacceptable number of hazardous in-flight situations.   The aim then is to produce a servicing policy which will effect the best compromise between these two extremes and will:

     a.   Reduce to an acceptable level the number of random defects arising.
     b.   Obtain the most economic use of the available technical manpower and resources.

Aircraft servicing in the Royal Air Force is founded on a system of regular or periodic servicing which can be divided into two groups:

     a.   That servicing which is necessary to maintain an aircraft fit for flight from day to day and consists mainly of replenishment, re-arming and checks for any obvious signs of defects.   This servicing is referred to as flight servicing (before, turn-round, or after-flight).

     b.   That servicing which is necessary to maintain an aircraft in a sound overall condition such that it will require the minimum of day-to-day attention.   This type of servicing is termed routine servicing and can include such operations as anti-deterioration measures, lubrication, adjustment, functional checks, replacement of components and comprehensive inspection in order to detect failures.   Since the depth of the work in this group usually increases as the time between servicing increases, it is convenient to differentiate between servicing by using such terms as Primary, Minor and Major.

     The periodicity of the servicing cycle is amended to meet the operational needs of the Commands, having regard to the reliability of the equipment they are called upon to operate.   A typical cycle showing the type and time of servicing is as follows:

     a.   Primary.   Each period of 50 flying hours or at intervals of one month.   This servicing includes an examination of the aircraft obvious defects, together with essential functional checks and lubrication of certain equipments.

     b.   Minor.   Each period of 200 flying hours or at intervals of four months.   This servicing includes an examination of the aircraft for defects, deterioration, corrosion and wear, and the lubrication of certain parts to a greater degree than is normally done at a primary servicing.   It affords the opportunity to carry out modifications, Special Technical Instructions (STIs) and Servicing Instructions (Sis) which may not have been implemented during the day-to-day servicing.

     c.   Major.   Each period of 800 flying hours or at intervals of twelve months.   This servicing includes a detailed examination of the aircraft, the changing of worn parts and adjustment or calibration of equipment necessary to maintain the required standards, in addition to the work which is normally done at minor servicings.
(Thanks to AP 3456E Part 2, Sect 1,Chap 1 Feb71)
PRO Public Record Office
PRS Prince Rupert School, Wilhelmshaven - British Families Education Service boarding achool.
PRU Photo Reconnaissance Unit.
PS Code used in En-route documents to indicate frequency on which to contact the Primary/Search Director.
PSP Pierced Steel Planking or Personal Survival Pack.
PSF Code used in En-route documents to indicate frequency on which to contact the Primary/Search and Final Talkdown.
PSI Pounds per Square Inch or Public Service Institute.
PSO Personal Staff Officer.
PT Physical Training.
PTI Physical Training Instructor.
PUP Pull Up Point. A point a few miles short of the target and mile or so offset where the lead aircraft began his pull up and turn in to the target from his low level approach from the Initial Point (IP).
PV Ram ???Can't remember what this problem on the Hunter concerned. I am sure I had problems with it as well! Can anyone remember?
PVR Premature Voluntary Retirement.
PX Post Exchange.   US equivalent of the British NAAFI.
QDS Qualified Daily Servicing
QFE Code letters given to aerodrome pressure corrected for temperature.   When set on the altimeter on the ground the altimeter should read zero.
QFI Qualified Flying Instructor
QGH Code letters that are not an acronym for anything. It is a procedure for recovery to the airfield, usually from overhead the base. Also known as CDTC - Controlled Descent Through Cloud.   PGH is believed to be this procedure but without the use of Air Traffic Control.
QHC Honorary Chaplain to the Queen.
QHI Qualified Helicopter Instructor.
QHNS Honorary Nursing Sister to the Queen.
QNE Altimeter sub-scale setting at 1013.2 millibars which will give the indicated height on landing and Flight Levels in the air.
QNH Altimeter sub-scale setting to obtain elevation when on the ground.
QR Queen's Regulations.
QRA Quick Reaction Alert.
QRB Quick Release Box.
QTE True bearing.
RA Royal Artillery.
Radar Ranging In the nose of the Hunter is a small radar dish that measures the range to the target. The air-to-air gunnery Flag carries a corner reflector that allows the radar to lock on to the flag. The radar ranging equipment needed careful maintenance and calibration by the ground crews to make sure it smoothly and accurately fed the range to the target in to the gunsight.
RAAF Royal Australian Air Force
RAC Royal Automobile Club.
Radio Compass Radio Compass used in Sabre.
RADIO COMPASS CONTROL PANEL
SabreRadComp.jpg, 2501 bytes
The Compass Control Panel is he remote control unit for a Bendix AN/ARN-6 (airborne radio navigational) radio compass as common in the 1950's.   It uses a loop aerial, which is rotated to derive a bearing to the source of the tuned radio signal.   While signal strength (visible on the tuning meter) minimizes if loop antenna is positioned squared to the station, the maximum (peak) value is reached, with loop antenna aligned in line with the bearing to the station, allowing to read correct bearing degrees on the compass rose of a radio compass indicator.   Development of ADF automatic direction finder receivers fitted with a motor-driven system for automatically turning the loop to the correct bearing, was a big improvement compared to older systems, requiring pilot or navigator to operate the loop aerial manually by hand, and also the potential danger of being misleaded if the station is behind the aircraft was eliminated.   Automatic bearing to NDB (recommended):
a. Set Function Selector Switch to position COMP.
b. Use Range (Band) Selector Switch to select the frequency band covering the desired station.
c. Tune in exact frequency with Frequency Tuning Knob.
If a valid signal is received, the Radio Compass Indicator and needle 2 of the ID-250 Radio Magnetic Indicator (2-needle) show the correct bearing to the station and the ADF mode of the Automatic Pilot may be used.   Using the ADF receiver for manual bearings:
a. Set Function Selector Switch to position ANT.
b. Use Range (Band) Selector Switch to select the frequency band covering the desired station.
c. Tune in exact frequency with Frequency Tuning Knob.
d. If a radio signal is indicated on Tuning Meter, move Function Selector Switch to position LOOP.
e. Turn loop with Loop Rotation Switch in either direction until Tuning Meter needle maximizes.
With peak signal strength, read bearing degrees on Radio Compass Indicator or needle 2 of the ID-250 Radio Magnetic Indicator (2-needle).
1. Compass Control - Function Selector Switch Use position COMP for automatic rotation of loop aerial to correct position.   If a valid signal is received, the Radio Compass Indicator and needle 2 of the ID-250 Radio Magnetic Indicator (2-needle) are pointing to the station.   Position ANT connects receiver to wire antenna.   This position can be used for easier tuning and identifying the station on Tuning Meter (increased signal strength compared to position COMP).   Note: Displayed bearing degrees may be not correct with switch set to ANT (no indication of direction in this position).   With the switch set to LOOP, loop antenna must be rotated manually using the Loop Rotation Switch.   Used only for manual bearings (the needle of the Tuning Meter must show peak signal strength, otherwise the indicated bearing degrees may be incorrect).
2. Compass Control - Tuning Meter Needle displays signal strength of the station currently tuned.
3. Compass Control - Loop Rotation Switch When doing manual bearings, the motor driving the loop antenna can be actuated in either direction by moving the switch to left or right.   IMPORTANT NOTE: The Function Selector Switch must be set to LOOP, before the loop can be manually turned.   For a usable bearing, the loop must be rotated to the position which is producing peak signal strength (Tuning Meter needle maximizes).   The Cockpit-Quick-Infos show current bearing error in degrees, helping to find out, in which direction the loop antenna must be turned.   The CW Oscillator Switch can be used for amplifying the received signal if necessary, allowing a more precise positioning of loop antenna.
4. Compass Control - Frequency Display Indicates frequency of the station tuned in with Frequency Tuning Knob in the selected band (1-4).   Clicking into the display window toggles digital readout of frequency for improved readability. Use as desired.
5. Compass Control - Range (Band) Selector Switch Frequency range is 100-1750 KHz, covered by 4 bands:
Band 1 100-200 KHz
Band 2 200-410 KHz
Band 3 410-850 KHz
Band 4 850-1750 KHz
Band-switching on the AN/ARN-6 is done electrically by setting the switch on the control panel to the desired position.
6. Compass Control - Frequency Tuning Knob Tunes to a radio signal within the frequency band selected by the Range (Band) Selector Switch.   Allows continuous frequency changing in 0.1 KHz steps throughout the complete range of the selected band by remote controlling an electric motor in the receiver.   There are mouse spots for frequency inc-/decrementing in 0.1, 1, and 20 KHz steps.   Click into Frequency Display window to toggle a digital readout of the current frequency tuned.   Can be used for easier frequency setting.
7. Compass Control - Display Light Control Switch Toggles background light in the Frequency Display window to improve readability at night.
8. Compass Control - Volume Knob Toggles the NDB ident sound (audible indication that a radio signal is received).
9. Compass Control - CW Oscillator Switch Here, this switch amplifies the received radio signal for better indication of signal strength on Tuning Meter.   Use as desired.   The Function Selector Switch must be in position ANT or LOOP.
10. Instrument Panel Lights Control Switch Turns cockpit lights on/off.
RAE Royal Aircraft Establishment
RAeC Royal Aero Club.
RAFA Royal Air Force Association.
RAFCC Royal Air Force Cinema Corporation.
RAFG Royal Air Force Germany.
RAFGSA Royal Air Force Gliding and Soaring Association.
RAFP Royal Air Force Police.
RAFR Royal Air Force Regiment
RAFVR Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve.
RAMC Royal Army Medical Corps.
RAMROD Short range bomber attacks to destroy ground targets during WWII, similar to Circus attacks.
RAN Royal Australian Navy.
Ranger Roving ground attack sortie in WWII.
RAP Remote Aerodynamic Power.
RAR Rhodesian African Rifles.
RAS Rectified Air Speed.
Rat and Terrier The 'RAT' represents a low level enemy intruder and he calls his position and rough heading (half a minute late) at brief intervals;   This information in wartime would originate from ground observation posts.   The 'TERRIER' pilot plots the enemy track and attempts to intercept him.
RATG Royal Airforce Training Group.
RCAF Royal Canadian Air Force
RCM Radar/Radio Countermeasures.
RD Research and Development.   Also Riparabile in Ditta - Italian damage classification meaning repairable but only in the manufacturer's workshop
RDF Radio Direction Finding.
RDAF Royal Danish Air Force.
RE Royal Engineers.
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Rebecca Mk 8 is an airborne interrogator which operates over the 200 to 245 MHz band and gives homing and range information when used in conjunction with a Eureka ground beacon.
Red Endorsement Red endorsements were made in a log book if an accident was found to be caused by a pilot for example neglecting to keep an eye on his fuel, running out and having to force land.
RFC Royal Flying Corps or Rugby Football Club.
RFU Rugby Football Union.
RHA Royal Horse Artillery.
RHKAAF Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force.
RHS Right Hand Side.
Rhubarb Operations when sections of fighters or fighter-bombers, taking full advantage of low cloud and poor visibility, would cross the English Channel and then drop below cloud level to search for opportunity targets such as railway locomotives and rolling stock, aircraft on the ground, enemy troops and vehicles on roads during WWII.
RI Remote Indicating.
RIC Royal Irish Constabulary.
Rigger Airman of the aircraft rigger trade. He specialises in servicing the airframe. Presumed to come from the old skills of "rigging" the old WW1 biplanes.
RIW Repaired In Works.
RMAF Royal Malaysian Air Force.
RMC Royal Military College.
RNAF Royal Netherlands Air Force.
RNAS Royal Naval Air Station.
RNAY Royal Naval Aircraft Yard.
RNSS Royal Naval Scientific Service.   The Royal Navy had sponsored and carried out a good deal of scientific research in the nineteenth century, and a number of establishments such as HMS Vernon and the Admiralty Experiment Works had been set up, but the forerunner of the Royal Naval Scientific Service was the Board of Inventions and Research, established in 1915 to initiate, investigate and advise on proposals for the application of science and engineering to naval warfare, including inventions sent to the Admiralty by members of the public.   In 1918 it became the Scientific Research and Experiment Department and in 1946 the Royal Naval Scientific Service.
RNVR Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve.
RNZAF Royal New Zealand Air Force.
RNZN Royal New Zealand Navy.
ROADSTEAD Dive bombing and low level attacks on enemy ships at sea or in harbour during WWII.
ROC Royal Observer Corps.
RODEO Fighter sweeps over enemy territory during WWII.
ROTC Reserve Officer Training Corps.
RP Rocket Projectile
RPM Revolutions Per Minute
RR Rolls Royce
RRAF Royal Rhodesian Air Force.
RRC Lady of the Royal Red Cross
RS Reconnaissance Support or Specialist?.
R/T Radio/Telephony
RTB Return To Base.
RTDF Radio/Telephony Direction Finder.
RTO Rail Traffic Officer.
RUC Royal Ulster Constabulary
RUFC Rugby Union Football Club
RVT Remote Video Terminal.
RWY RunWay
S Secondary.
S746 Code used in En-route document to indicate the type of fluid that is available at an airfield. S-746 is a de-icing fluid.
SAAF South African Air Force.
SAB Spangdahlen Air Base.
SAC Strategic Air Command or Senior AirCraftsman
SACEUR Supreme Allied Commander EURope.
SADO Senior Administrative Officer - OC Admin Wing.
SAM Surface to Air Missile.
SandL Straight and Level.
SAPT Scottish Aircraft Preservation Trust.
SAR Search And Rescue
SARAH Search And Rescue Aid to Homing. A radio beacon carried by aircrew which when activated sends a signal enabling search and rescue crews to home on the beacon. Is also automatically activated when entering sea water.
SAS Special Air Service.
SASO Senior Air Staff Officer.
SATCO Senior Air Traffic Control Officer.
SAUNTER Codeword used in fighter interceptions and means fly at .85 Mach (approx. range speed for the Hunter).
SB Standby.
SBA Standard Beam Approach.
SBAC Society of British Aircraft Constructors.
SCAR Sub-Calibre Aircraft Rocket - 2.25".
SCGB Ski Club of Great Britain.
SCM State Certified Midwife
SCU Sabre Conversion Unit.
SD Service Dress
SDL I do not know this acronym. Has anyone any ideas?
SDO Station Duty Officer.
SEAF South East Air Force.
Securite Securite (pronounced "say-cure-it-ay" from the French sicuriti) indicates a message about safety, such as a hazard to navigation or weather information.
SEngO Squadron Engineering Officer.
SEO Senior Equipment Officer.
SERV Servicing Facilities as given in the En-route documents.
SF Code used in En-route documents to indicate the frequency to contact Secondary/Final Talkdown also shorthand for Syllabus Flying.
SFC Specific Fuel Consumption
SFTS Service Flying Training School.
SG Specific Gravity.
SHAPE Supreme Headquarters of the Allied Powers in Europe.
SHQ Station HeadQuarters.
SI Servicing Instruction.
SIA Singapore International Airl;ines.   Usually just Singapore Airlines.
SIB Special Investigation Branch.
SIO Station Intelligence Officer.
SITREP Situation Report.
SMO Senior Medical Officer
SMUN Smoke More Underwear Now - rallying cry of the Jever Steam Laundry.
Snake Climb A Snake Climb is used by a formation of two or more aircraft, to penetrate cloud. The leader calls his heading and whenever he turns. Following aircraft follow those headings and turns with a suitable delay. The formation joins up once they are above cloud.   Snake Descent is the same in reverse to descend through cloud.
SNCASO Societe Nationale des Constructions Aeronautiques du Sud-Ouest, or commonly, Sud-Ouest) was a French aircraft manufacturer, which originated on November 16, 1936, from the merger of the factories of Bleriot of Suresnes, Bloch of Villacoublay and Courbevoie, SASO (Societe Aeronautique du Sud-Ouest) of Bordeaux-Merignac, UCA (Usine de Construction Aeronautique) of Bordeaux-Begles, SAB (Societe Aerienne Bordelaise) of Bordeaux-Bacalan and Liore et Olivier of Rochefort. Additionally, SNCASO built a factory in Deols in 1936.   SNCASO took over SNCAO's assets in 1941.   On March 1, 1957, SNCASO merged with SNCASE (Societe nationale de constructions aeronautiques du sud-est), to form Sud Aviation.
SNCO Senior Non-Commissioned Officer
SNECMA Societe Nationale d'Etudes et de Construction de Moteurs d'Aviation.   French aircraft engine manufacturer.
SO Sud Ouest.
SOAF Sultan of Oman Air Force.
SOC Sector Operations Centre or Struck Off Charge for aircraft.
SOE Special Operations Executive was a British secret service formed in July 1940 - soon after the fall of France - to foster resistance among the civil population in Nazi-occupied Europe and to promote sabotage and subversion. Winston Churchill inspired the formation of S.O.E. and continued to support it until it was dissolved in 1946, its wartime task completed.
SOMQ Senior Officers' Married Quarters.
SOO Squadron Operation Order.
SOP Standard Operational Procedure
SOR Special Occurremce Report - Flight Safety form used to report any unusual or dangerous incident.
SOS Secretary of State.
SOXMIS Soviet Military Mission in West Germany.   [Click to see full description.]
SOZ Soviet Occupied Zone.
SP Self Propelled or Service Policeman or Sergeant Pilot or Solo Pilot.
spgr Specific Gravity.
SPLASH Codeword used in fighter interceptions and means target destroyed.
SR Southern Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe.
SRF School of Refresher Flying.
SRIM Service Radio Installation Modification.
SRN State Registered Nurse.
SRO Station Routine Orders.
SS Steam Ship, or code used in En-route documents to indicate frequency on which to contact the Secondary Search, or single seat as for dinghies.   Also the Schutzstaffel translated to Protection Squadron or defence corps, abbreviated SS - or with stylized marks "Armanen" sig runes) was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).   It began at the end of 1920 as a small, permanent guard unit known as the "Saal-Schutz" (Hall-Protection) made up of NSDAP volunteers to provide security for Nazi Party meetings in Munich.   Later in 1925, Heinrich Himmler joined the unit which had by then been reformed and renamed the "Schutz-Staffel".   Under Himmler's leadership (192945), it grew from a small paramilitary formation to one of the largest and most powerful organizations in the Third Reich.   Built upon the Nazi ideology, the SS under Himmler's command was responsible for many of the crimes against humanity during World War II (193945).   The SS, along with the Nazi Party, was declared a criminal organization by the International Military Tribunal, and banned in Germany after 1945.
SSAFA Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen and Families Association.
SSC Short Service Commission.
SSF Code used in En-route documents to indicate frequency on which to contact the Secondary Search Frequency.
SSQ Station Sick Quarters.
SSV Soft Skinned Vehicles e.g. trucks, non armoured vehicles.
STI Special Technical Instruction
STOP Abbreviation used in En-route documents to head the section on the type of Arrester Gear installed on the airfield.
Stoppage Rates Stoppage rates refer to the number of rounds fired between gun stoppages. Clearly gun stoppages are an embarrassment and the higher the rate the better for the aircrew. Often it is split in to two types, avoidable and unavoidable. Avoidable are those stoppages which were considered to be because of poor servicing or human error. Unavoidable are due to causes beyond the control of the unit, e.g. bad shells from the factory.
STSO Senior Technical Staff Officer
SU Signals Unit as in 101 SU radar station at Brockzetel
SWO Station Warrant Officer.
T True as in °T, Training.
T80 Type 80 Early Warning and Ground Controlled Interception Radar.
TandS Turn and Slip.
TABT Typhoid, paratyphoid A&B and Tetanus
TAC Tactical.
TACAN TACtical Air Navigation system.   TACAN and DME are UHF navigation aids that operate in the 1,000 MHz band.   DME ground beacons provide range information only, whilst TACAN beacons supply magnetic bearing in addition to range.   The range function of both TACAN and DME beacons is identical in operation and is based on the transponder principle, but the bearing information of a TACAN beacon is in the form of a continuous transmission.
TACDEN HQ Tactical Air Command Denmark.
TACEVAL Tactical Evaluation - surprise operational examination.
TacR Tactical Reconnaissance
TAF Tactical Air Force
TALLYHO I am visual with the target and am taking over the interception from this point. I require PIDGEONS to Base.
TAP Terminal Approach Procedures
TAS True Air Speed
TBA Tunable Beam Approach.
TBC To Be Confirmed
TBD To Be Detailed.
TCA Trans-Canada Airlines.
TCV Troop Carrying Vehicle.
TD Temporary Duty or Territorial Decoration.
TDU Trials Development Unit.
TDY Temporary Duty.
TEE Trans Europ Express.   The Trans Europ Express, or Trans-Europe Express (TEE), is a former international railway service in Europe.   At its maximum extent, in 1974, the TEE network comprised 45 trains, connecting 130 different cities.
tel Telephony, usually headset.
Telescramble Crews on standby used to be scrambled by a telephone call which was found to be slow and inhibited the passing of detail. Telescramble was a wire plugged in to the aircraft which pulled loose as the aircraft rolled forward for take off. Until it disconnected the pilot was in direct contact with the radar controller who not only issued the order to scramble but could also pass initial vectors and altitude instructions to the pilot.
TERPS TERminal instrument ProcedureS.
TEV Telephone Exchange Vehicle used by No 1 Wing Signal Troops to provide a mobile telephone exchange when the Wing deployed.
TEWT Tactical Exercise Without Troops.
Thld Threshold of the runway as in En-route documents.
TK Tits and Knickers - nickname for the notorious banned bar in downtown Jever - St Annentor Bar..
TMN True Mach Number.
TO Take Off.
TOC Top Of Climb, Tactical Operations Centre.
TP Tailplane.
TSI Technical Staff Instructions.
TR Transmitter/Receiver.
TR9D Transmitter Radio of type not known used in WWII
TRE Trial Radar Establishment.
TSL Typical Service Load.
TSV TurnSportVerein (German: gymnastics and sports club; aka Turn- und Sportverein).
TT Target Towing or Tourist Trophy (as in Isle of Man TT).
TWA Trans-World Airways or The Wilhelmshaven Association (Old pupils at the Prince Rupert BFES Boarding School, Wilhelmshaven).
TWR Tower.
TWU Tactical Weapons Unit.
TYPE13

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The Type 13 CMH (Centimetric - Height) "Nodding Horror" was the R.A.F.'s first centimetric radar and was developed in order to improve height information at GCI stations. Development started in 1942 using two cheese antennae mounted together vertically to give an aperture of 20 feet by 3 feet and employing Naval Type 277 transmitter and receiver. The narrow vertical beam of 1.5° was nodded vertically from -1° elevation to +20° elevation at 6 cycles per minute. The horizontal beam width was 7.5°. A range/angle of elevation display was used to measure the height of an aircraft which had been selected and towards which the Type 13 had been turned by remote control. The Type 13 or CMH set was put into production in March 1943 but the requirement for the Type 14 diverted effort. The first Type 13 Mk II was operational in early 1944.
TYPE14 page171.jpg, 17175 bytes
The Type 14 CHEL/GCI (Chain Home Extra Low/Ground Controlled Intercept) was a 10 centimetre radar, the first Type 14 was working at Sandwich in January 1944. The development of the Type 14 arose because the Type 7 metric GCI radar had been subject to both electronic and window jamming and could not detect very low flying aircraft. The simplest way around the problem was to modify the Type 13 Centimetric Height (CMH) equipment by mounting its aerial horizontally, instead of vertically, and rotate it horizontally. Earlier marks used twin "cheese" antennas and the only differences between Mk's II, III, IV and V were in the operational facilities. In 1944 a new antenna was designed for the Mk VI consisting of 1/2 inch steel tubes at a separation of 1 and 1/4 inches in the shape of a horizontal cylindrical paraboloid. It was fed by a linear waveguide slotted feed.
TYPE15

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Radar Type 15 is a mobile metre-wave searchlight azimuth-search radar used for control, capable of giving not only plan positions but also approximate heights of targets. Mk.5 is a re-engineered version of the earlier Type 15, produced to work with "Rotor" type equipment in the "Vast" convoys. It consists of an aerial system mounted on a cabin containing a radar transmitter and receiver together with I.F.F. gear, with a prime mover vehicle carrying the pivot mount of the cabin and the aerial turning gear; the whole being also described as RVT503 Mk. 1. The displays and control gear are mounted in the mobile operations room RVT510. The radar will be fitted with an I.F.F. Mk. 10 installation.
TYPE80

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The Type80 was a 2.5 Mw (peak) S-band (3 GHz or 3,000 MHz) search radar with a range of around 200-250 miles.   The transmitter and receiver equipment and IFF equipment rack was housed in the square cabin just below the antenna that rotated with the antenna.   After working in here for a while whilst the radar was rotating you could feel quite ill!   One novelty trick was to toss a screw driver across the cabin to your mate. It would describe a curved course as it flew and you had to aim a little clockwise if he was to be able to catch it!   The building below was known as the modulator building and housed the high voltage power supplies for the transmitter modulator.   The cabin was connected to the modulator building by a tube containing slip rings that carried power and signals up to the rotating parts.
1px-trans.gif, 43 bytesThe aerial rotated at 4 rpm and you'll get an idea of the size of this beast from the size of the stairways in the picture.   When the propagation conditions allowed we could see the power lines across northern France.   The Type 80 was developed in the early 1950's from an experimental design based on the Type 14 Mk VI under the project code name Green Garlic.   Almost overnight this radar made the "Rotor" air defence system redundant, offering superior range and performance over existing "Rotor" equipment that formed a chain of air defence radar stations that covered the United Kingdom.   The Type 80 was so successful that many of the old "Rotor" stations closed within a few years of commencing operation and the stations equipped with the Type 80 became Master Radar Stations (MRS).
1px-trans.gif, 43 bytesOne feature of the Type 80 modulator that never failed to impress visitors was a large twelve phase mercury arc power rectifier known as the "Mekon", after Dan Dare's mortal enemy in the "Eagle" comic.   In operation the "Mekon" shone a bright violet colour and gave off high levels of UV radiation.   The "Mekon" was housed in its own cubicle with a darkened glass observation window; it was an impressive sight to see the arc dance around on the pool of mercury.
U Unmanned.
UAS University Air Squadron.
UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.
U/C Undercarriage
UCONN University of Connecticut.
UDF Ultra High Frequency Direction Finder.
UE Unit Establishment
UFO Unidentified Flying Object.
UHF Ultra-High Frequency. Frequencies between 300 MHz and 3 GHz (3,000 MHz).
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation.
UP United Press.
U/S Unserviceable
USAAC United States Army Air Corps.
USAAF United States Army Air Force.
USAF United States Air Force.
USAFE United States Air Force in Europe.
USCG United States Coast Guard.
USCGC United States Coast Guard Cutter.
USMC United States Marine Corps.
U/T Under Training.
UTA Upper conTrol Area.
U/V Ultra Violet.
U/W Underwear.
UWIST University of Wales Institute of Science and Technology, Cardiff.
V/A Vital Actions.
VAAC Vertical-thrust Aircraft Advanced Control.
VC Victoria Cross.  The Victoria Cross is the highest award for gallantry that can be awarded to members of the British and Commonwealth armed forces of any rank in any service and civilians under military command.  The original inscription on the cross was "FOR BRAVERY" but this was amended to "FOR VALOUR" on the recommendation of Queen Victoria who thought some might erroneously consider that only medal winners were brave in battle.  The VC was first issued on January 29, 1856, recognising acts of valour during the Crimean War of 1854-1855.  All VCs are cast from the bronze of two Chinese cannons that were reputedly captured from the Russians at the of siege of Sevastopol.  Some historians doubt the cannon were at Sevastopol.  The medal takes the form of a Maltese cross, or cross patte, 1.375 inches wide, bearing a crown surmounted by a lion, and the inscription . The ribbon is crimson, 1.5 inches wide.   Since its inception it has been awarded 1,354 times.  The largest number of VCs won in a single day was 24 on November 16, 1857 at the relief of Lucknow.  The largest number won in a single action was at Rorke's Drift on January 22, 1879.  Since the end of the Second World War the VC has only been awarded 11 times.  The last two were won during the Falklands War in 1982.  Only three people have won the Victoria Cross twice, Noel Godfrey Chavasse, Arthur Martin-Leake and New Zealander Charles Hazlitt Upham.  The second award is designated by a bar device worn on the suspension ribbon of the original decoration and this is thus known as a VC and Bar and since a small cross device is worn on the V.C. ribbon when worn alone, a recipient of the V.C. and bar would wear two such crosses on the ribbon.
VCAS Vice-Chief of the Air Staff
VD Venereal Disease.
VE Victory in Europe in WWII.
Vehicle Number Plates RAF vehicles were registered for their number plates under the following classifications
(i.e. 12AA34):

RAF VEHICLE REGISTRATIONS

Source: "http://mafva.net/
AA - Land Rovers, Light Trucks, Ambulances, Trailers, Cars
AB - Cars
AC - Coaches, Cranes
AD - Refuellers, Fuel Trailers, Specialist Vehicles
AE - Airfield Caravans, Cargo Trucks
AF - Trucks, Fire Appliances, Cars, Minibuses
AG - Fire, Water, Domestic, Crash Appliances
AH - Breakdown, Cranes, Hoist, Platforms (Tower) Wagons, Aircraft Loading Vehicles
AI - Not Used
AJ - Load Carriers (i.e. Cargo Trucks), Refuellers
AK - Sweepers, Snow Clearers, Refuse
AL - Tipper Trucks
AM - Light Vehicles, Cars, Land Rovers
AN - Tractor Units
AO - Weapons Loaders
AP - Fork Lift Trucks
AQ - Ancillaries
AR - Vans, Snow Ploughs, Brushes
AS - Vans
AT - Airfield Construction Plant, Combat Recce Vehicles and Equipment (CVR[T])
AU - Trailers, incl. Fire Pumps
AV - Snow Clearing Vans, Re-registered WW2 Vehicles, Radio Trucks
AW - Trailers, Snow Clearing Trailers, Fire Pump Trailers
AX - Trailers, Semi-Trailers, Motorcycles
AY - RAF Specialist Vehicles
AZ - Not used
VFR Visual Flight Rules.
VHF Very High Frequency
VHS Video Home System.
VI Variable Incidence.
VIP Very Important Person
VMC Visual Meteorological Conditions.   Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling, equal to or better than specified minima.
VPP Vertical Plate Photographs.
VR Visual Reconnaissance.
VSI Vertical Speed Indicator.
VSTOL Vertical and Short Take-Off and Landing.
VTM Vehicles To Mile.
VVIP Very Very Important Person
W/T Wireless Telegraphy, i.e. radio.
WAAC Women's Auxiliary Army Corps.
WAAF Women's Auxiliary Air Force.
WC Wing Commander.
WD War Department.
WEF With effect from.
WEM Unknown acronym. Suspect a trade specialisation. Anyone with an idea?
Wh White.
WHITE CARD The White Card is the minimum instrument flying experience rating.   In the RAF the ratings were usually tested every 6 months.   As well as passing the test applicants had also to have certain minimum practical experience, e.g. hours of instrument flying both simulated and actual in the last 6 months.   The hierarchy of qualifications was as follows:
Command Instrument Rating Examiner (CIRE) - Able to test and award to other IREs and below in a Command;
Instrument Rating Examiner (IRE) - Able to examine and award the lower qualifications.   There might be one or two per squadron;
Master Green - Held by the most experienced and able pilots;
Green - Most experienced pilots in flying practice would be expected to hold a Green rating;
White - The first step on the ladder and a minimum before pilots could fly in Instrument Flight Rules weather conditions.
Each level had its own margins of error within which the pilot must fly whilst performing set manoeuvres "under the hood".   The examination was an Instrument Rating Test (IRT) and was obviously conducted on dual seat versions of the aircraft or in a similar type where there was no dual seat version, e.g. the Vampire or Meteor before the Hunter T7 was introduced.   It was usually carried out with the examinee flying with a hood that stopped him seeing the outside world and forced him to fly only on instruments.   The examiner, of course, had to fly in the clear so that he could maintain a lookout.   The test limits were applicable to each aircraft type and may differ depending on the performance of the aircraft.
A higher level rating was sought after as it allowed your Flight Commander to authorise you for solo flight in worst weather conditions than lower rated pilots.   (See Instrument Flight Rules)
I do not have a record of the test limits or content of a Hunter IRT and would be grateful if anyone could let me have a copy.
Window Code word for chaff which is dropped to cause large radar returns.
WKhM Omani Distinguished Service Medal.
WL WOG Laundry.
WO Warrant Officer.
WRAC Women's Royal Army Corps.
WRAF Women's Royal Air Force.
WRENS Women's Royal Naval Servic, popularly and officially known as the Wrens.
WRNS Women's Royal Naval Servic, popularly and officially known as the Wrens.
WRVS Women's Royal Voluntary Service.
WSS Winter Survival School.
WVS Women's Voluntary Service.
x Code used in En-route documents to indicate "On Request"; facility can be provided in minutes as a result of request made from the air.
XC Cross Country.
XRAY Unidentified aircraft.